Publications (1997–Present)

  1. Hailili, R.; Wang, Z.-Q.; Xu, M.; Wang, Y.; Gong, X.-Q.; Xu, T.; Wang, C. Layered nanostructured ferroelectric perovskite Bi5FeTi3O15 for visible light photodegradation of antibiotics, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, accepted
  2. Guo, P.; Xia, Y.; Gong, J.; Stoumpos, C. C.; McCall, K. M.; Alexander, G. C. B.; Ma, Z.; Zhou, H.; Gosztola, D. J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Xu, T.; Chan, M. K. Y.; Schaller, R. D. Polar Fluctuations in Metal Halide Perovskites Uncovered by Acoustic Phonon Anomalies, ACS Energy Lett., 2017, 2, pp 2463–2469
  3. Smith, K. A.; I. A. Savva; Deng, C.; Wharry J. P.; Hwang S.; Su, D.; Wang, Y.; Gong, J.; Xu, T.; Butt, D. P.; Xiong, H.;Effects of proton irradiation on structural and electrochemical charge storage properties of TiO2 nanotube electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 11815–11824
  4. Deng, C.; Lau; M. L. Barkholtz; H. M.; Xu, H.; Parrish R.; Xu, M.; Xu, T.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Connell, J. G.; Smitha, K. A.; Xiong, H. Amorphous boron nanorod as an anode material for lithium‐ion batteries at room temperature, Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 10757–10763.
  5. Smith, K. A.; Savva, A. I.; Deng, C.; Wharry, J. P.; Hwang, S.; Su, D.; Wang, Y.; Gong, J.; Xu, T.; Buttf, D. P.; Xiong, H. Effects of proton irradiation on structural and electrochemical charge storage properties of TiO2 nanotube electrodes for lithium‐ion batteries, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2017, 5, 11815–11824.
  6. Hailili, R.; Dong, G.; Ma, Y.; Jin, S.; Wang, C.; Xu, T. Layered Perovskite Pb2Bi4Ti5O18 for Excellent Visible Light‐Driven Photocatalytic NO Removal, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2017, 56, 2908–2916.
  7. Liu, G.; Kong, L.; Gong, J.; Yang, W.; Mao, H.‐K.; Hu, Q.; Liu, Z.; Schaller, R. D.; Zhang, D.; Xu, T. Pressure‐Induced Bandgap Optimization in Lead‐Based Perovskites with Prolonged Carrier Lifetime and Ambient Retainability, Adv. Func. Mater. 2017, 27, 1604208 (8 pages) Highlighted by Advanced Science News.
  8. Kong, L.; Liu, G.; Gong, J.; Hu, Q.; Schaller, R. D.; Dera, P.; Zhang, D.; Liu, Z.; Yang, W.; Zhu, K.; Tang, Y.; Wang, C.; Wei, S.‐H.; Xu, T.; Mao, H.‐K. Simultaneous band‐gap narrowing and carrier–lifetime prolongation of organic–inorganic trihalide perovskites, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2016, 113, 8910–8915.
  9. Gong, J.; Yang, M.; Ma, X.; Schaller, R. D.; Liu, G.; Kong, L.; Yang, Y.; Beard, M. C.; Lesslie, M.; Dai, Y.; Huang, B.; Zhu, K.; Xu, T. Electron–Rotor Interaction in Organic–Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effect, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2016, 7, 2879–2887.
  10. Heather M. Barkholtz, H. M.; Gallagher, J. R.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Winans, R. E.; Miller, J. T.; Liu, D.‐J.; Xu, T. Lithium Assisted "Dissolution–Alloying" Synthesis of Nanoalloys from Individual Bulk Metals, Chem. Mater., 2016, 28, 2267–2277.
  11. Xin, X.; Xu, T.; Wang, L.; Chuanyi Wang, C.; Ti3+‐self doped brookite TiO2 single‐crystalline nanosheets with high solar absorption and excellent photocatalytic CO2 reduction, Scientific Report, 2016, 6, Article number: 23684
  12. Jiang, Q.; Xu, T. Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Materials for “Nova Star” Solar Cells: State of Technology and Outstanding Challenges, Comments on Inorganic Chemistry, 2016, 36, 200–214.
  13. Jiang, Q.; Yeh, Y.‐P.; Lu, N.; Kuo, H.‐W.;Lesslie, M.; Xu, T. The influence of fluoroalkyl chains in redox electrolytes for energy conversion, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2016, 8, 013701
  14. Sheng, X.; Chen, L.; Xu, T.; Zhu, K.; Feng, X., Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance, Chemical Science 2016, 7, 1910–1913.
  15. Gang Liu, G.; Lingping Kong, L.; Yan, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Xu, T.; Mao, H.‐K.; Chen, B.; Nanocrystals in Compression: Unexpected Structural Phase Transition and Amorphization due to Surface Impurities, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 11803–11809.
  16. Barkholtz, H. M.; Chong, L.; Kaiser, Z. B.; Xu, T.; Liu, D. J. Highly Active Non‐PGM Catalysts Prepared from Metal Organic Frameworks, Catalysis, 2015, 5, 955–965.
  17. Xie, Y.; Shao, F.; Wang, Y.; Xu, T.; Wang, D.; Huang, F. Enhanced Performance of Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cell by Using CH3NH3I as Additive in Sequential Deposition, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2015, 7, 12937–12942.
  18. Jiang, Q.; Rebollar, D.; Gong, J.; Piacentino, E. L.; Zheng, C.; Xu, T. Pseudohalide‐Induced Moisture Tolerance in Perovskite CH3NH3Pb(SCN)2I Thin Films. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 7617–7620. Highlighted as Very Important Paper (VIP) by editor.
  19. Xin, X.; Xu, T.; Yin, J.; Wang, L.; Wang, C. Management on location and concentration of Ti3+ in anatase TiO2 for defects‐induced visible‐light photocatalysis, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2015, 176–177, 354–362.
  20. Yang, H.; Shen, H.; Xu, T.; Karamanis, D. Progress in Photovoltaic Devices and Systems, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2015, Article ID 926063.
  21. Agusdinata, D.B.; Amouie, M.; Xu, T. Diffusion dynamics and concentration of toxic materials from quantum dots‐based nanotechnologies: an agent‐based modeling simulation framework, J. Nanoparticle Research, 2015, 17:26.
  22. Liu, X.; Zhao, W.; Cui, H.; Xie, Y.; Wang, Y.; Xu, T.; Huang, F. Organic–inorganic Halide Perovskite Based Solar Cells — Revolutionary Progress in Photovoltaics, Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers, 2015, 2, 315–335.
  23. Jiang, Q.; Xia, S.; Shi, B.; Feng, X.; Xu, T. Nickel‐Cathoded Perovskite Solar Cells, J. Phys. Chem. C., 2014, 118, 25878–25883.
  24. Jiang, Q.; Sheng X.; Li, Y.; Feng, X.; Xu, T. Rutile TiO2 Nanowires Perovskite Solar Cells, Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 14720–14723. Highlighted as Inside Front Cover Page.
  25. Zu, B.; Lu, B.; Yang, Z.; Guo, Y.; Dou, X.; Xu, T. Gas Adsorption Thermodynamics Deduced from the Electrical Responses in Gas‐Gated Field‐Effect Nanosensors, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014, 118, 14703–14710.
  26. Liu, F.; Zhu, K.; Li, T.; Xu, T.* Drift Transport in Al2O3‐sheathed 3‐D Transparent Conducting Oxide Photoanodes Observed in Liquid Electrolyte‐based Dye‐sensitized Solar Cells. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 9951–9957.
  27. He, H.; Jiao, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Qiu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, C. Size controllable synthesis of single‐crystal ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheet dominated with {0 0 1} facets toward enhanced visible‐light‐driven photocatalytic activities. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2014, 156–157, 35–43.
  28. Zu, B.; Lu, B.; Guo, Y.; Xu, T.; Dou, X. Simple Metal/SiO2/Si Planar Photodetector Utilizing Leakage Current Flows through SiO2 Layer, J. Mater. Chem. C., 2014, 2, 2045–2050.
  29. Zhao, D.; Shui, J.‐L.; Grabstanowicz, L. R.; Chen, C.; Commet, S. M.; Xu, T.; Lu, J.; Liu, D. J. Highly Efficient Non‐Precious Metal Electrocatalysts Prepared from One‐Pot Synthesized Seolitic Imidazolate Frameworks, Adv. Mater., 2014, 26, 1093–1097.
  30. Yang, Z.; Guo, L.; Zu, B.; Guo, Y.; Xu, T.; Dou, X. CdS/ZnO Core/Shell Nanowire‐Built Films for Enhanced Photodetecting and Optoelectronic Gas‐Sensing Applications, Advanced Optical Materials, 2014, 2, 738–745.
  31. Jiang, Q.; Liu, F.‐Q.; Li, T.; Xu, T.* Fast and Low Voltage‐driven Solid‐state Electrochromics Using 3‐D Conductive FTO Nanobeads Electrodes, J. Mater. Chem. C 2014, 2, 618–621.
  32. Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Lin, T.; Yin, H.; Lü, X.; Wan,D.; Xu, T.; Zheng, C.; Lin, J.; Huang, F.; Xie, X.; Jiang, M. Core‐Shell Nanostructured “Black” Rutile Titania as Excellent Catalyst for Hydrogen Production Enhanced by Sulfur Doping, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 17831–17838.
  33. Yin. H.; Lin, T.; Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhu, G.; Xu, T.; Xie, X.; Huang, F.; Jiang, M.; Gray TiO2 Nanowires Synthesized by Aluminum‐Mediated Reduction and Their Excellent Photocatalytic Activity for Water Cleaning, Chem. Eur. J.2013, 19, 13313–13316.
  34. Liu, X.; Xu, H.; Grabstanowicz, L.R.; Gao, S.; Lou, Z., Wang, W.; Huang, B.; Dai, Y.; Xu, T.*, Ti3+ Self‐doped TiO2‐x Anatase Nanoparticles via Oxidation of TiH2 in H2O2, Catalyst Today, 2014, 225, 80–89.
  35. Yuan, S.; Shui, J.‐L.; Grabstanowicz, L.; Chen, C.; Commet, S.; Reprogle, B.; Xu, T.; Yu, L.; Liu, D.‐J. A Highly Active and Support‐Free Oxygen Reduction Catalyst Prepared from Ultrahigh‐Surface‐Area Porours Polyporphyrin, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 8349–8353.
  36. Gao, S.; Liu, X.; Xu, T.; Ma, X.; Shen, Z.; Wu, A.; Zhu, Y.; Hosmane, N.S. Synthesis and Characterizastion of Fe10BO3/Fe3O4/SiO2 and GdFeO3/Fe3O4/SiO2: Nanocomposites of Biofunctional Materials, ChemistryOpen, 2013, 00, 1–5.
  37. Liu, F.; Wu, H.; Li, T.; Grabstanowicz, L.; Amine, K.; Xu, T.* Three‐Dimensional Conducting Oxides Nanoarchitectures: Morphology‐Controllable Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Lithium‐Ion Batteries, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 6422–6429.
  38. Grabstanowicz, L.R.; Gao, S.; Li, T.; Rickard, R.M.; Rajh, T.; Liu, D.‐J.; Xu, T.* Facile Oxidative Conversion of TiH2 to High Concentration Ti3+‐Self‐Doped Rutile TiO2 with Visible‐Light Photoactivity, Inorg. Chem., 2013, 52, 3884–3890.
  39. Zhang, J.; Liu, X.; Gao, S.; Huang, B.; Dai, Y.; Xu, Y.; Grabstanowicz, L.R.; Xu, T. From AgI/TiO2 to Ag/TiO2: effects of the annealing temperature on the compositions, porous nanostructures, and visible‐light photocatalytic properties, Ceramics International, 2013, 39, 1011–1019.
  40. Lin, C.‐K.; Lin, Y.‐G.; Wu, T.; Barkholtz, H. M.; Lin, Q.; Wei, H.; Brewe, D. L.; Miller, J. T.; Liu, D.‐J.; Ren, Y.; Ito, Y.; Xu, T.* Direct Synthesis of Bimetallic Pd3Ag Nanoalloys from Bulk Pd3Ag Alloy, Inorg. Chem., 2012, 51, 13281–13288.
  41. Yang, Z.; Gao, S.; Li, T.; Liu, F.; Ren, Y.; Xu, T.* Enhanced Electron Extraction from Template‐Free 3‐D Nanoparticulate Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) Electrodes for Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells, ACS Appl. Mater. & Interfaces, 2012, 4, 4419–4427.
  42. Lin, C.‐K.; Zhao, D.; Gao, W.‐Y.; Yang, Z.; Ye, J.; Xu, T.; Ge, Q.; Ma, S.; Liu, D.‐J. Tunability of Band Gaps in Metal‐Organic Frameworks, Inorg. Chem., 2012, 51, 9039–9044.
  43. Zeng, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xu, T.; Kwok, W. K. Hydrogen responses of ultrathin Pd films and nanowire networks with a Ti buffer layer, J. Mater. Sci., 2012, 47, 6647–6651.
  44. Luo, Q.; Zeng, X. Q.; Miszczak, M. E.; Xiao, Z. L.; Pearson, L.; Xu, T.; Kwok, W. K. Phase slippage driven dissipation and high field Little‐Parks effect in superconducting, Phys. Rev. B, 2012, 85, 174513.
  45. Zhang, J.; Grabstanowicz, L. R.; Gao, S.;* Hosmane, N. S.; Huang, B.; Dai, Y.; Liu, D.‐J., Xu, T.* Visible‐Light Photocatalytic SiO2/TiO2‐xCx/C Nanoporous Composites Using TiCl4 as Precursor for TiO2 and Polyhydroxyl Tannin as Carbon Source, Catalysis Science & Technology, 2012, 2, 390–399.
  46. Yang, Z.; Powers, K. C.; Liu, D.‐J.; Ren, Y.; Xu, T.* Solid Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared through a Counter Strategy for Filling of Solid Hole Transporter. J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 2011, 3, 063101.
  47. Zeng, X.‐Q.; Wang,Y.‐L.; Deng, H.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z.‐L., Pearson, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, H.‐H.; Ulrich Welp; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K. Networks of Ultrasmall Pd/Cr Nanowires as High Performance Hydrogen Sensors. ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 7443–7452.
  48. Chakrabarti, A.; Lu, J.; Skrabutenas, J. C.; Xu, T.*; Xiao, Z.*; Maguire, J. A.; Hosmane, N. S.* Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Few‐layer Graphene. J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 9491–9493.
  49. Yang, Z.; Gao, S.; Li, W.; Vlasko‐Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; K. W. Wai; Xu, T.* Three‐Dimensional Photonic Crystal Fluorinated Tin Oxide (FTO) Electrodes: Synthesis, Optic and Electrical Properties. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2011, 3, 1101–1108.
  50. Zeng, X. Q.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Panuganti, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Xu, T. Hydrogen Gas Sensing with Networks of Ultrasmall Palladium Nanowires Formed on Filtration Membranes. Nano Letters, 2011, 11, 262–268.
  51. Yang, Z.; Xu, T.*; Gao, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, K. W. Enhanced Electron Collection in TiO2 Nanoparticle‐Based Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells by An Array of Metal Micropillars on A Planar FTO Anode. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114, 19151–19156.
  52. Xu, P.; Xu, T.*; Lu, J.; Gao, S.*; Hosmane, N.; Huang, B.; Dai, Y. Visible‐Light‐Driven Photocatalytic S‐ and C‐ Codoped Meso/Nanoporous TiO2. Energy & Enviromental Science, 2010, 3, 1128–1134.
  53. Xu, P.; Lu, J.; Xu, T.*; Gao, S.*; Huang, B.; Dai, Y. I2‐Hydrosol‐Seeded Growth of (I2)n‐C‐Codoped Meso/Nanoporous TiO2 for Visible Light‐Driven Photocatalysis. J. Phys. Chem. C., 2010, 114, 9510–9517.
  54. Chakrabarti A.; Xu, T.* Paulson L. K.; Krise, K. J.; Maguire, J. A.; Hosmane, N. S. Synthesis of Boron Nanorods by Smelting Non‐toxic Boron Oxide in Liquid Lithium. J. Nanomaterials, 2010, Vol. 2010, Article ID 589372.
  55. Xu, T.*; Lin, C.; Wang, C.; Brewe, D.; Ito, Y.; Lu, J. Synthesis of Supported Platinum Nanoparticles from Li‐Pt Solid Solution. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 2151–2153.
  56. Yang, Z.; Xu, T.*; Yasuo, I.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K. Enhanced Electron Transport in Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells Using Short ZnO Nanotips on A Rough Metal Anode. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 20521–20526.
  57. Lin, C.; Xu, T.;* Yu, J.; Ge, Q.; Xiao, Z. Hydrogen Spillover Enhanced Hydriding Kinetics of Palladium‐Doped Lithium Nitride to Lithium Imide. J. Phys. Chem. C , 2009, 113, 8513–8517.
  58. Lin, C.; Yang, Z. and Xu, T.* and Zhao, Y. An in situ electric study on primary hydrogen spillover from nanocatalysts to amorphous carbon support. Applied Physics Letters, 2008, 93, 233110.
  59. Xu T.* Nanogravimetric Evaluation of Hydrogen Uptake in Thin Film Materials by A Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 2008, 1098E, HH03.
  60. Kulchytskyy, I.; Kocanda, M. G. and Xu, T*. Direct mass determination of hydrogen uptake using a quartz crystal microbalance. Applied Physics Letters, 2007, 91, 113507.
  61. Patel, U.; Xiao, Z. L.; Hua, J.; Xu, T.; Rosenmann, D.; Novosad, V.; Pearson, J.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W. Origin of the matching effect in a superconducting film with a hole array. Physics Review B, 2007, 76, 020508.

Above Papers Are Published Since Joining NIU in August 2006

  1. Xu, T*.; Zach, M. P.; Xiao, Z. L.; Rosenmann, D.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W. Self‐assembled monolayer enhanced hydrogen sensing with ultra‐thin palladium films. Applied Physics Letters, 2005, 86, 203104.
  2. Xu, T.; Metzger R. M. Nanoditches Fabricated using a Carbon Nanotube as a Contact Mask. Nano Letters, 2002, 2, 1061–1064.
  3. Xu, T.; Morris, T.; Szulczewski, G.; Amaresh, R.; Gao, Y.; Street, S. C.; Kispert L.; Metzger, R. M. A Spectroscopic Study of Hexadecylquinolinium Tricyanoquinodimethanide as a Monolayer and in Bulk. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2002, 106, 10374–10381.
  4. Xu, T.; Zangari, G.; Metzger, R. M. Periodic Holes with 10 nm Diameter Produced by Grazing Ar+ Milling of the Barrier Layer in Hexagonally Ordered Nanoporous Alumina. Nano Letters, 2002, 2, 37–41.
  5. Xu, T.; Morris, T.; Szulczewski, G. J.; Metzger, R. M.; Current‐Voltage Characteristics of an LB Monolayer of di‐Decylammonium Tricyanoquinodimethanide Measured between Macroscopic Gold Electrodes. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2002, 12, 3167–3171.
  6. Gao, Y.; Konovalova, T.; Xu, T.; Kispert, L. Electron Transfer of Carotenoides imbedded in MCM‐41 and Ti‐MCM‐41: EPR, ENDOR and UV/Vis studies. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2002, 106, 10808–10815.
  7. Xu, T.; Peterson, I. R.; Lakshmikantham, M.; Metzger, R. M. Rectification by a monolayer of Hexadecylquinolinium tricyanoquinodimethanide between gold electrodes. Angewandte. Chemie International Edition, 2001, 40, 1749–1752.
  8. Metzger, R. M.; Xu, T.; Peterson, I. R. Electrical Rectification by A Monolayer of Hexadecylquinolinium Tricyanoquinodimethanide Measured between Macroscopic Gold Electrodes. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2001, 105, 7280–7290.
  9. Metzger, R. M.; Konovalov, V.; Sun, M.; Xu, T.; Zangari, G.; Xu, B.; Benakli M.; Doyle, W. D. Magnetic Nanowires in Hexagonally Ordered Pores of Alumina. IEEE Transactions on Magnetism, 2000, 36(Part I), 30–35.
  10. Xu, T.; Metzger, R. M. Light‐Induced Enhancement of Rectification by Monolayer of Hexadecylquinolinium Tricyanoquinodimethanide between Al Electrodes. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 2000, 620, JJ10.8.
  11. J. Su, Xu, T.; Chen K.; Tian, H. Excited State Properties of bis‐1,8‐Naphthalimides. Dyes and Pigments, 2000, 44, 87–92.
  12. Tian, H.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, K. Two‐Path Photo‐Induced Electron Transfer in Naphthalimide‐Based Model Compound. Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transaction 2, (3) 1999, 545–549.
  13. Xu, T.; Su, J.; Chen K.; Tian, H. Synthesis of bis‐ and tris‐ 1,8‐naphthalimides bridged by N‐N bond. Heterocyclic Communications, 1999, 5, 31–36.
  14. Su, J.; Xu, T.; Chen, K.; Tian, H. Electroluminescence properties of twisted dyad 1,8‐naphthalic anhydride derivatives. Synthetic Metals, 1997, 91, 249–251.


  1. Xu, T. “Highly Efficient Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cells Using Microtextured Electron Collecting Anode and Nanoporous and Interdigitated Hole Collecting Cathode and Method for Making Same”, U.S Patent # US‐2011‐0232759‐A1, published on 09‐29‐2011.
  2. Xu, T.; Zach, M. P.; Xiao, Z. L. Ultrafast and ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors based on self‐assembly monolayer promoted 2‐dimensional palladium nanoclusters. U.S patent 7171841 issued on Feb. 6, 2007, licensed to Makel Engineering, Inc. (Chico, CA).

Book Chapters

  1. Guilian Zhu, Tao Xu, Fuqiang Huang, "The Black and White Issue of Nanotitania" Chapter 5, page 77–117, Feb. 2017, in the book of "Black TiO2 Nanomaterials for Energy Applications" Edited by: Xiaobo Chen (University of Missouri–Kansas City, USA), Yi Cui (Stanford), World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, ISBN: 978‑1‑78634‑165‑5.
  2. Tao Xu, “Nanoarchitectured Electrodes for Enhanced Electron Transport in Dye‑Sensitized Solar Cells”, Chapter 7, page 271‑298, “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy through Nanotechnology”, Ed. Z. Ling, Springer. ISBN: 978‑0‑85729‑637‑5.