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In-Text Citations in APA Style

In APA text citations, include the author's name and the year of publication in parentheses. If the author's name is identified in the sentence, then only include the year.

Eugen Herrigel (1989) personally penetrated into the theory and practice of Zen Buddhism.

One Work by Multiple Authors

If only two authors are cited, include both names. If the work has more than two authors, cite their names only the first time; later include et al. after the first author's name. If the work has more than six authors, use et al. after the first author's name.

Rule to Remember

APA is the documentation system which is used most often in the social sciences.

Deitel, Deitel, Listfield, Nieto, Yaeger, and Zlatkina (2002) in text would appear as:

Deitel et al. (2002) show how to program in C# by example.

Citing Part of a Work

When citing a specific part of the source, indicate the page or chapter cited.

According to Herrigel (1989), arts studied in Japan "are not intended to utilitarian purposes only or for purely aesthetic enjoyments, but are meant to train the mind" (p. vii).

If the name of the author and the year of publication are not mentioned in the text, include them in the parentheses together with the page number, as in:

Arts studied in Japan "are not intended to utilitarian purposes only or for purely aesthetic enjoyments, but are meant to train the mind" (Herrigel, 1989, p. vii).

Long quotations

If a quotation is more than 40 words long, it needs to be indented half an inch and written without enclosing quotation marks. It also needs to be double-spaced. If there is more than one paragraph, the first line of the second and subsequent paragraphs needs to be indented.

In Ancient Mysteries the authors narrated the famous riddle of the Sphinx:

Close to the Great Pyramid, on the edge of the Giza plateau in northern Egypt, sits the world's most enigmatic sculpture -- the Sphinx. Worn by the ravages of time and scarred by the hand of man, this colossal figure of a human-headed lion, 240 feet long and 66 feet high, is the largest surviving statue from the ancient world. (p. 213)

Authors with the Same Last Name

When the authors have the same last name, the first author's name should be cited with initials.

H. M. Dietel and P. J. Dietel (1999) define pointers as "variables that contain as their values addresses of other variables" (p. 294).

Indirect Sources

If what you quote is a quotation itself, include the phrase as cited in:

According to John Allegro, in archeology "almost every season brings fresh discoveries that demand a reassessment of outmoded theories and presumptions" (as cited in James and Thorpe, 1999, p. 527).

Multiple Parenthetical References

These should be ordered as they appear in the reference list and separated by semicolons.

(James and Thorpe, 1999; Herrigel, 1989)

Rule to Remember

In APA style, use italics rather than underlining. In MLA style, underlining is preferred to italics because of better readability.

Groups as Authors

The name of a group or corporate author should be spelled out when it appears in the text.

Some familiar group authors can be spelled out the first time, but in subsequent occurrences they can be abbreviated.

"Building a UNESCO National Education Support Strategy" presents a strategy matrix for national education priorities for the years 2008-2013 (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2007).

Anonymous Author

When the author is unknown, use the first few words of the reference list entry of that work. If the work's author is stated as "anonymous," use:

(Anonymous, 2000)

Personal Communication

Personal communications (e-mail, memos, letters) are not included in the reference list, but they can be cited in the text. Include the author's initials and the exact date of the communication.

A. P. Jones (personal communication, August 12, 2007)

Rule to Remember

In APA style, personal communications (e-mail, memos, letters) are not included in the Reference list.