Using Citations in Economics Papers


General Information

Every academic discipline has distinctive forms for displaying scholarship. In general, economists cite works using the name and year system and use the APA or a modified APA style to list references.
This page assists economics students with the rules of citation when writing a research paper.

You should always check with your instructors for their preferred method of citation or follow the format of the journal to which your article is to be submitted.

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In-Text Citation

  1. Place the year within parentheses immediately after the author's name (use only the last name).
    Berlin (1988) stated that structures in the material world are socially constructed.

    If you do not use the author's name in the text, place the name within the parenthetical citation.

    Conflicting views need to be either eliminated or reconciled through rational negotiation (Bruffee, 1986).

  2. For 2 authors use both names.
    Lauer and Asher (1988) state that composition research has two focuses.

    Some researchers have noted a change in procedures to correspond to their focus (Mathes & Stevenson, 1976).

    For 3-6 authors use all names in the first entry "(Smith, Jones, & Miller, 1994)," but later use "(Smith et al., 1994)."

    For 7 or more authors use "(Smith et al., 1994)."

    Notice that when the authors names are in the text "and" is used, but when the names are in parentheses "&" is used.

  3. Use lowercase letters (a, b, c) to identify two or more works published by the same author in the same year; for example, "Barton (1995a)" and "Barton (1995b)." Use "1995a" and "1995b" in the list of references.

  4. Include page numbers only for direct quotations (use "p." or "pp.").
    Porter (1993) stated, "Ethics is an important though too-much-neglected topic" (p. 129).

    He stated that neither "local law [nor] public policy can provide comprehensive ethical guidelines" (Porter, 1993, p. 141); therefore, a single set of theories cannot determine ethical practice.

  5. Set off a long quotation from the text in a block and do not use quotation marks.
    The Committee for Economic Development (1971) noted the following:
    Today it is clear that the terms of the contract between society and business are, in fact, changing in substantial and important ways. Business is being asked to assume broader responsibilities to society than ever before and to server a wider range of human values. Business enterprises, in effect, are being asked to contribute more to the quality of American life than just supplying quantities of goods and services. (pp. 29-30)
  6. Alphabetically list every reference used in your text at the end of the paper in the list of references.

  7. Use double-spacing throughout the paper (triple-spacing before side headings and before and after illustrations and tables is permitted).

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Listing References--APA Style

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Major Components of APA Citations

Author One author
  • Give last name first.
  • Use initials instead of full first and middle names.
Example: Clark, M. V.

Two or more authors

  • Give last name and initials of all authors, no matter how many.
  • Separate names with commas.
  • Place an ampersand (&) before the last author.
Example: Romer, M. A., & Shapiro, C. B.
Example: Bond, G. T., Gardner, H. L., Hart, F. C., & Magee, T.
Date Book and Journal
  • Place the year of publication (in parentheses) after the author's name.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: (1954).

Magazine and Newspaper

  • For monthly publications, give the year and month (in parentheses) after the author's name.
  • For weekly publications, give the year, month, and day (in parentheses) after the author's name.
  • Place a comma after the year.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: (1978, January).
Example: (1986, August 15).
Title Book
  • Underline with a solid line or italicize (not both).
  • Capitalize only first work (title and subtitle) and proper nouns.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: Centuries of childhood: A social history of family life.

Periodical article

  • Use no quotation marks or underlining.
  • Capitalize only first word (title and subtitle) and proper nouns.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: The problem of perfection.

Periodical

  • Underline with a solid line or italicize (not both).
  • Capitalize all major words.
  • Place a comma after the title.
Example: Natural History Magazine,
Publication
Information
Book
  • After the title, give the city and a brief form of the publisher's name.
  • Place a colon after the city and a period at the end.
Example: New York: Macmillan.

Journal

  • Place the underlined (or italics) volume number after the title, follow with a comma.
  • Give inclusive page numbers.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: 3, 197-209.

Magazine and Newspaper

  • Omit the volume number.
  • Give inclusive page numbers.
  • Place p. before one page number and pp. before more than one.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: p. B1.
Example: pp. 12-24.
Table from The Rinehart Handbook for Writers (Third Edition)

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Basic Forms in APA Style

Book (Basic Format)
Prelli, L. J. (1989). A rhetoric of science: Inventing scientific discourse. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Book by Several Authors
Koslin, S., Koslin, B. L., Pargament, R., & Pendelton, S. (1975). An evaluation of fifth grade reading programs in ten New York City Community School Districts, 1973-1974. New York: Riverside Research Institute.

Edited Book
Coats, A. W., & Robertson, R. M. (Eds.). (1969). Essays in American economic history. London: Edward Arnold.

Part of a Book
Sullivan, P., & Porter, J. (1993). On theory, practice, and method: Toward a heuristic research methodology for professional writing. In R. Spilka (Ed.), Writing in the workplace: New research perspectives (pp. 220-237). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Later Edition
Doughty, O. (1960). A Victorian romantic, Dante Gabriel Rossetti. (2nd ed.). London: Oxford University Press.

Work with a Corporate Author
American Psychological Association. (1966). Standards for educational and psychological tests and manuals. Washington, DC: Author.

Encyclopedia Article
Hodge, R. W., & Siegel, P.M. (1968). International encyclopedia of the social sciences (Vol. 15, pp. 316-324). New York: Macmillan.

Government Document
Bormuth, J. R. (1969). Development of readability analyses (Univ. of Chicago Final Report No. 7-0052). Washington, DC: U. S. Office of Education.

Article in a Scholarly Journal
Stahl, A. (1977). The structure of children's compositions: Developmental and ethnic differences. Research in the Teaching of English, 11, 156-163.

The volume number, not the issue number, is used when the journal is numbered continuously through the year.
Kaplan, B. M. (1985). Zapping--the real issue is communication. Journal of Advertising Research, 25(2), 9-12.
The volume number and the issue number are given when each issue begins with page 1.
Article in a Magazine or Newspaper
Conniff, R. (1990, September). Once the secret domain of miners and ranchers, the BLM is going public. Smithsonian, pp. 30-47.

Article in a Magazine or Newspaper, No Author
Pan Am charts a course for Europe, 1939. (1989, May 26). The Wall Street Journal, p. B1.

Abstract--Published
Misumi, J., & Fujita, M. (1982). Effects of PM organizational development in supermarket organization. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 93-111. (From Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68, Abstract No. 11474)

Abstract--Unpublished
Havens, N. B. (1982). Verbalized symbolic play of pre-school children in two types of play environments. Abstract of doctoral dissertation, Temple University. (From Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982, 42, 5058A)

Interview
Herrens, M. B. (1980, February 3). [Interview]. Lexington, KY.

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Sample Bibliography

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Listing References--Modified APA Style

  1. Use full names of authors.
  2. Separate two authors with "and," not "&."
  3. Use capitals for all major words in titles.
  4. Enclose the title of an article within quotation marks.
  5. Use a comma after the date.
  6. Use commas to separate all items in a journal reference.
  7. Do not underline the volume number.
  8. Do not precede page number(s) with "p." or "pp."

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Major Components of Modified APA Citations

Author One author
  • Give last name first.
  • Use full first and middle names.
Example: Clark, Michelle V.

Two or more authors

  • Give full names of all authors, no matter how many.
  • Separate names with commas.
  • Use "and" before the last author.
Example: Romer, Michael A., and Carol B.Shapiro
Example: Bond, George Thomas, Hilda L. Gardner, Frederick C. Hart, and Thomas Magee
Date Book and Journal
  • Place the year of publication (in parentheses) after the author's name.
  • Place a comma at the end.
Example: (1954),

Magazine and Newspaper

  • For monthly publications, give the year (in parentheses) after the author's name and month (in parentheses) after magazine name.
  • For monthly publications, give the year (in parentheses) after the author's name, and give month and day (in parentheses) after magazine name.
  • Place a comma after the year.
  • Place a comma after the month and day.
Example: (1978), "GNP Growth," Business Week (June 10),
Title Book
  • Underline with a solid line or italicize (not both).
  • Capitalize all major words.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life.

Periodical article

  • Use quotation marks.
  • Capitalize all major words.
  • Place a comma at the end.
Example: "The problem of perfection,"

Periodical

  • Underline with a solid line or italicize (not both).
  • Capitalize all major words.
  • Place a comma after the title.
Example: Natural History Magazine,
Publication
Information
Book
  • After the title, give the city and a brief form of the publisher's name.
  • Place a colon after the city and a period at the end.
Example: New York: Macmillan.

Journal

  • Place the volume number after the title, follow with a comma.
  • Give inclusive page numbers.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: 3, 197-209.

Magazine and Newspaper

  • Omit the volume number.
  • Give inclusive page numbers.
  • Place a period at the end.
Example: B1.
Example: 12-24.
Table modified from The Rinehart Handbook for Writers (Third Edition)

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Basic Forms in Modified APA Style

Book (Basic Format)
Prelli, Lawrence J. (1989), A Rhetoric of Science: Inventing Scientific Discourse. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Book by Several Authors
Koslin, Susan, Brent L. Koslin, Rachel Pargament, and Samuel Pendelton (1975), An Evaluation of Fifth Grade Reading Programs in Ten New York City Community School Districts, 1973-1974. New York: Riverside Research Institute.

Edited Book
Coats, Arnold W., and Raymond M. Robertson (Eds.) (1969), Essays in American Economic History. London: Edward Arnold.

Part of a Book
Sullivan, Patricia, and James Porter (1993), On Theory, Practice, and Method: Toward a Heuristic Research Methodology for Professional Writing. In Rachel Spilka (Ed.), Writing in the Workplace: New Research Perspectives (220-237). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Later Edition
Doughty, Oscar (1960), A Victorian Romantic, Dante Gabriel Rossetti. (2nd ed.). London: Oxford University Press.

Work with a Corporate Author
American Psychological Association (1966), Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests and Manuals. Washington, DC: Author.

Encyclopedia Article
Hodge, Ronald W., & Siegel, Pat M. (1968), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Vol. 15, 316-324). New York: Macmillan.

Government Document
Bormuth, Jonathan R. (1969), Development of Readability Analyses (Univ. of Chicago Final Report No. 7-0052). Washington, DC: U. S. Office of Education.

Article in a Scholarly Journal
Stahl, Anne (1977), "The Structure of Children's Compositions: Developmental and Ethnic Differences," Research in the Teaching of English, 11, 156-163.

The volume number, not the issue number, is used when the journal is numbered continuously through the year.
Kaplan, Benjamin M. (1985), Zapping--The Real Issue Is Communication. Journal of Advertising Research, 25(2), 9-12.
The volume number and the issue number are given when each issue begins with page 1.
Article in a Magazine or Newspaper
Conniff, Roberta (1990), "Once the Secret Domain of Miners and Ranchers, the BLM Is Going Public," Smithsonian (September), 30-47.

Article in a Magazine or Newspaper, No Author
"Pan Am Charts a Course for Europe, 1939," (1989), The Wall Street Journal, (May 26), B1.

Abstract--Published
Misumi, Jin, and Michelle Fujita (1982), "Effects of PM Organizational Development in Supermarket Organization," Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 93-111. (From Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68, Abstract No. 11474)

Abstract--Unpublished
Havens, Natalie B. (1982), "Verbalized Symbolic Play of Pre-school Children in Two Types of Play Environments," Abstract of doctoral dissertation, Temple University. (From Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982, 42, 5058A)

Interview
Herrens, Michelle B. (1980, February 3), [Interview], Lexington, KY.

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Sample Bibliography

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