FOREIGN AREA POLITICS:
Spring 2006, DuSable 464: M 3:30 – 6:10 p.m.
Gregory D. Schmidt Office Hours: M 10-11:30
Office: Zulauf 426 W 3-4:30 & by apt.
Phone: 753-7039 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
seminar examines the “third wave” of democratization in
Registered auditors are welcome in the class. Please see point 6 below.
Course Policies and Requirements
Smith, Democracy in Latin America:
Political Change in Comparative Perspective (
Payne, Daniel Zovatto G., Fernando Carrillo Flórez, and Andrés Allamand Zavala,
Democracies in Development: Politics and
Reform in Latin America (
Hagopian and Scott P. Mainwaring, The
Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks (
I have requested that all three texts be placed on print reserve (P) under the call number indicated above. Nevertheless, you should purchase the Smith text and the volume edited by Hagopian and Mainwaring. You may purchase the Payne et al. text, download the Spanish version, or use the copy on print reserve (P) until the 2006 edition is available online. I reserve the right to assign short articles on current events. These will be placed on electronic reserves, posted on Blackboard, or handed out in class.
Doctoral students will also be responsible for the supplementary readings listed in the Course Outline when they take the Ph.D. comprehensive exams. These supplementary readings are also on electronic reserve (E) or print reserve (P).
All seminar participants will need to develop additional expertise on one or more Latin American countries in order to complete the term paper. Expertise on at least two Latin American countries is also essential for students preparing for doctoral exams. The following books have been placed on print reserve (P) because they contain useful chapters on various Latin American countries:
M. Carey and Matthew Soberg Shugart, Executive
Decree Authority (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Chapters on
Diamond, Jonathan Hartlyn, Juan J. Linz, and
Helmke and Steven Levitsky, eds., Informal
Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America (
Mainwaring, Ana María Berjano, and Eduardo Pizarro Leongómez, eds., The Crisis of Democratic Representation in
Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully, eds., Building
Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in
Scott Mainwaring and
Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in
Mainwaring and Christopher Welna, eds., Democratic
Accountability in Latin America (
J. Middlebrook, ed., Conservative
Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America (
Scott Morgenstern and
Benito Nacif, eds., Legislative Politics
in Latin America (
Dieter Nohlen, ed. Elections in the
C. Prillaman, The Judiciary and
Democratic Decay in Latin America: Declining Confidence in the Rule of Law
E. Skidmore and Peter H. Smith, Modern
Latin America, Sixth Edition (
Lee Van Cott, From Movements to Parties
in Latin America: The Evolution of Ethnic Politics in Latin America (
Weyland, The Politics of Market Reform in
Howard J. Wiarda and Harvey F. Kline, eds., Latin American Politics and Development, Sixth Edition (
Significant books and articles on specific countries are far too numerous to be listed here. The bibliographies in the three core texts provide excellent leads for developing country-level expertise. The following journals are especially useful for articles or book reviews: Comparative Politics, Comparative Political Studies, Current History (usually the February issue), Journal of Democracy, Latin American Politics and Society, and Latin American Research Review.
Important articles and book reviews on
American Journal of Political Science, Democratization, Electoral Studies, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Journal of Latin American Studies, Journal of Politics, Legislative Studies Quarterly, Party Politics, Perspectives on Politics,
Política y Gobierno, Political Research Quarterly, Political Science Quarterly, Revista de Ciencia Política, Studies in Comparative International Development, Third World Quarterly, and World Politics.
Please note that the required and supplementary readings are only a very small and highly selective sample of the vast literature on Latin American politics. They have been carefully chosen, bearing in mind the themes of the course, the unfamiliarity of many students with the region, and their relevance to the broader field of comparative politics.
2. Study Questions, designed to help you get the most out of the readings and to stimulate discussion, will be posted on Blackboard before most, if not all, classes. You should be prepared to answer these questions, to the best of your ability, before coming to class. If necessary, I will assign specific questions to seminar participants.
Study questions for each class will be posted no later than 11 p.m. the previous Wednesday. I hope that I will be able to post materials before this deadline most weeks. From time to time, I will also post other ancillary materials on Blackboard. Only if there is a technical or human problem with Blackboard will questions or other materials be distributed in class.
You can access Blackboard by following these steps:
A. Type the URL http://webcourses.niu.edu/ in the address box of your browser (Internet Explorer works best) or go to the NIU homepage and click on "Students," and then "Blackboard" under "Quick Links" on the right. You can also access the “Blackboard Course Server” with the A-Z feature of the NIU homepage.
B. Click the Login Button.
C. Type username (Novel ID = student ZID) and password. For help with your password, please go to password.niu.edu or phone 753-8100.
D. Click Login.
E. Click on the title of this course, FOR AREA: LATIN AMER Section 1
F. Click on assignments.
G. Open and print out the relevant assignment or ancillary posting.
For any technical problems in accessing Blackboard, please call 753-8100.
3. Class Participation. Although some material is most efficiently conveyed in short lecture segments, we will follow a seminar format as much as possible. Thus, seminar participants are expected to complete required readings and to be prepared to answer study questions for each class. Class participation will count for 20 percent of the final grade. In assessing class participation, I will emphasize quality, rather than mere quantity. You should attend every class. Poor attendance or persistent tardiness will have a negative impact on your participation grade.
4. Exams. The mid-term exam is scheduled for March 5. The final exam will be given on May 7. Both exams will be given in class and have a closed-book, essay format. Thus, they approximate the conditions of––and should serve as good practice for––the Ph.D. comprehensive exams. A list of possible questions will be posted on Blackboard no later than the Wednesday preceding each exam. Questions selected from the list will then appear on the exam.
Make-up exams will be given only in the case of a documented medical or personal emergency. In such an event, Professor Schmidt (753-7039) or the Political Science Office (753-1011) must be notified before the exam.
5. Term Paper. Each seminar participant taking the course for credit will write a 15-20 page paper. There are three options:
(A) Configurative. Pick a Latin American country. Evaluate the performance and impacts of several key institutions during the third wave of democratization. Do you have any suggestions for change? Although your analysis should be sensitive to the context of the particular country, the primary emphasis should be on political institutions as independent, dependent, or intervening variables.
(B) Comparative. Evaluate the origins or impacts of a particular type of institution (e.g. electoral or party systems, the presidency, congress) across two or more Latin American countries during the third wave. Justify your selection of cases, analyze similarities and differences, and extrapolate conclusions.
(C) Historical. Trace the historical development of a key institution in a Latin American country from independence or from its origin before the third wave. Analyze the causes and consequences of continuity and change. (Note: sources in Spanish or Portuguese may be necessary for this option.)
Under any of these options your paper should be informed by the theoretical and comparative literature from this class. It should also go beyond the class discussion and required readings (e.g., see the additional sources under point 1 above). In most cases, students will find it advantageous to write on countries that we have emphasized in class, but I am willing to consider papers treating other Latin American countries, as well. Similarly, under Options B and C I am willing to entertain papers that focus on types of institutions that we have not emphasized in class (e.g. subnational governments, similar sorts of informal institutions).
Seminar participants are strongly encouraged to discuss their papers with me. All sources must be properly cited. I prefer APSA or APA style or some other author/date system. I am, however, open to other widely accepted styles (AMA, MLA) so long as the supporting sources can be easily found and you are consistent. For illustrations, please consult the APSA Style Manual for Political Science (2001) or go to http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citation.htm.
Papers are due on May 7 at 4:30 p.m. in the main office. Late papers will be penalized 5 points for each day of tardiness. I will not accept papers that arrive after 4:30 p.m. on May 11. Please do not submit papers as e-mail attachments.
6. Auditors. Students who wish to audit this course are welcome if they register for three hours of POLS 590 for the purpose of auditing POLS 573k. Auditors are expected to regularly attend class and encouraged to do the readings. They are also invited to participate in class discussions if they have done the corresponding readings.
7. Course Grade. Class participation, the midterm exam, and the final exam will each count for 20 percent of your final grade. The term paper will account for 40 percent.
Course grades will be distributed as follows:
Final Average Final Grade
93% and above A
90-92% A -
Below 60% F
In grading, I will abide by the standards adopted by the Political Science Graduate Committee. A grade of "A" is reserved for those students whose written and oral work is of the highest quality: thorough, creative, well-substantiated, insightful, and analytical. "A" grades are earned by seminar participants who understand that graduate education is to a large extent self-education. During their graduate careers these students will do much more than fulfill formal requirements.
A grade of "A-" can be earned by seminar participants who demonstrate most, but not all, of the qualities listed in the preceding paragraph.
A grade of “B+" is given for written and oral work that demonstrates a good grasp of the material.
A grade of "B" indicates satisfactory written and oral work.
A grade of "B-" is given to students whose performance meets only minimal expectations at the graduate level. I will not recommend these students for the Ph.D. program.
A grade of "C" means that the student's performance is less than adequate for graduate study in the Department of Political Science. This grade will make it more difficult for the student to maintain the minimum 3.00 GPA needed to avoid academic probation and dismissal.
Grades of "D" and “F" are given in those rare cases when a student makes little or no effort to meet the course requirements.
8. Academic Integrity. Seminar participants are expected to comply with NIU and Department of Political Science policies regarding academic integrity and plagiarism. Please see the NIU Graduate Catalog 2006-07 (pp. 20-21) and the Department of Political Science Graduate Handbook (pp. 25-26). Any suspicion of academic misconduct will be treated in accordance with university and departmental policies and procedures.
9. Adjustments in Course Schedule. I will do my best to follow the course schedule outlined below, but I reserve the right to make reasonable adjustments with adequate warning if unforeseeable or uncontrollable circumstances (e.g. weather, illness, travel) so warrant. It is not fair, however, to change the schedule or previously set exam dates simply to accommodate the preferences of some students, since other students inevitably suffer.
10. Additional Information. Students should become familiar with the department’s webpage which has course syllabi and other useful information on the graduate program.
Introduction to Course
Land and People
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 1-15. (T, P)
Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1999), pp. 1-19. (E, P) JC421 .D4918 1999
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 1-13. (T, P)
Diamond, Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation, pp. 64-116. (P) JC421 .D4918 1999
Scott Mainwaring, Daniel Brinks, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñan, “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999,” Studies in Comparative International Development 36-1 (October 2001), pp. 37-65. (E)
Guillermo O’Donnell, “Delegative Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 5-1 (January 1994), pp. 55-69. (E)
Andreas Schedler, “What Is Democratic Consolidation?,” Journal of Democracy 9-2 (April 1998), pp. 91-107. (E)
Institutions and Democracy
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 1-23. (T, P) (Prefacio/Introduction and Chapter 1 in 2006 edition)
Kurt Weyland, “Limitations of Rational-Choice Institutionalism for the Study of Latin American Politics,” Studies in Comparative International Development 37-1 (Spring 2002), pp. 57-85. (E)
Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky, eds., Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 2006), pp. 1-30. (E, P) JL966 .I55 2006
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 17-133. (T, P)
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 14-59. (T, P)
Kurt Weyland, “Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics, Comparative Politics 34-1 (October 2001), pp. 1-22. (E)
Larry Diamond, Jonathan Hartlyn, Juan J. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America, Second Edition (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999), pp. 1-70. (E, P) JL960 .D46 1999
Parties and Party Systems
Scott P. Mainwaring, Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization (Stanford University Press, 1999), pp. 221-242. (E)
Torcuato S. Di Tella, History of Political Parties in Twentieth-Century Latin America (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Press, 2004), pp. 181-196. (E)
Kenneth M. Roberts, "Populism, Political Conflict, and Grass-Roots Organization in Latin America," Comparative Politics 38-2 (January 2006), pp. 127-148. (E)
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 176-182. (T, P)
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 127-154 (T, E, P) 155-183 (T, P). (Chapters 6-7 in 2006 edition)
Mainwaring and Scully, eds., Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, pp. 1-34 (E, P) JL969.A45 B85 1995
Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson, “Old Parties and New Democracies: Do They Bring Out the Best in One Another?” Party Politics 7-5 (September 2001), pp. 581-604. (E)
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 45-64. (T, P) (Chapter 9 in 2006 edition)
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 183-209. (T, P)
Elections and Party Systems
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 166-171. (T, P)
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 65-125. (T, E, P) (Chapters 2-3 in 2006 edition)
Gregory D. Schmidt, "Fujimori's 1990 Upset Victory in Peru: Electoral Rules, Contingencies, and Adaptive Strategies," Comparative Politics 28-3 (April 1996), pp. 321-54. (E)
Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Soberg Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 394-439. (P) JL961 .P751997
Mark P. Jones, Electoral Laws and the Survival of Presidential Democracies (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995), pp. 155-66. (E)
Presidentialism and Executive-Legislative Relations
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 137-166, 171-175. (T, P)
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 185-220. (T, P) (Chapter 4 in 2006 edition)
George Tsebelis and Eduardo Alemán, “Presidential Conditional Agenda Setting in Latin America,” World Politics 57-3 (April 2005), pp. 396-420. (E)
Arturo Valenzuela, “Latin American Presidencies Interrupted,” Journal of Democracy 15-4 (October 2004), pp. 5-19. (E)
Mainwaring and Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America, pp. 12-54. (E, P), pp. 429-37. (P) JL961 .P751997
John M. Carey and Matthew Soberg Shugart, Executive Decree Authority (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 1-29, 274-98. (P) K3350 .E98 1998
Gary Cox and Scott Morgenstern, “Latin America’s Reactive Assemblies and Proactive Presidents,” Comparative Politics 33-2 (January 2002), pp. 171-89. (E)
José Antonio Cheibub, “Minority Governments, Deadlock Situations, and the Survival of Presidential Democracies,” Comparative Political Studies 35-3 (April 2002), pp. 284-312. (E)
Democratic Accountability Institutions
Scott Mainwaring, “Introduction: Democratic Accountability in Latin America,” in Mainwaring and Welna, eds., Democratic Accountability in Latin America, pp. 3-33. (E,P) JL 966.D456 2003
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 221-48. (T, P) (Chapter 5 in 2006 edition)
Fredrik Uggla, “The Ombudsman in Latin America,” Journal of Latin American Studies 36-3
(August 2004), pp. 423-450. (E)
Direct Democracy Institutions
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 249-65. (T, P) (Chapter 8 in 2006 edition)
Main Trends in Democratic Reform
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 267-78. (T, P) (Conclusion in 2006 edition)
Go Over Midterms
Contemporary Issues in Latin American Democracies
Smith, Democracy in Latin America, pp. 213-345. (T, P)
Payne et al., Democracies in Development, pp. 25-44. (T, P) (Chapter 10 in 2006 edition)
Kurt Weyland, “Neoliberalism and Democracy in Latin America; A Mixed Record,”
Latin American Politics and Society 46-1(Spring 2004), pp. 135-157. (E)
Jorge G. Castañeda, “Latin America’s Left Turn,” Foreign Affairs (May/June 2006). (E)
Peter Hakim, “Is Washington Losing Latin America?” Foreign Affairs 85-1 (January/
February 2006). (E)
Argentina and Brazil
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 63-120. (T, P)
Leslie Elliott Armijo, Philippe Faucher, and Magdalena Dembinska, “Compared to What?: Assessing Brazil’s Political Institutions,” Comparative Political Studies 39-6 (August 2006), pp. 759-786. (E)
Colombia and Venezuela
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 235-260 and 289-316. (T, P)
Javier Corrales, “Hugo Boss,” Foreign Policy (January/February 2006), pp. 32-40. (E)
Mexico and Peru
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 121-146 and 261-288. (T, P)
Additional Reading (not required):
Gregory D. Schmidt, Peru: The Politics of Surprise. New York: McGraw-Hill Primis Online, 2004. (E)
Bolivia and Guatemala
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 149-178 and 202-231. (T, P)
Raúl L. Madrid, “Indigenous Parties and Democracy in Latin America,” Latin American Politics
and Society 47-4 (Winter 2005), pp. 161-178. (E)
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 179-201. (T, P)
Hagopian and Mainwaring, The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America, pp. 319-362. (T, P)
Papers Due by 4:30 p.m. in Main Office