POLS 562 Professors D. King and D. Unger

Spring 2004 Office hours:

Wednesday, 6:30-9:10 Unger: Tu 2:15-3:15, W 5-6

DuSable 300 dunger@niu.edu, 753-7042

King: M 11:00-12, Th. 3:00-4:00

dking@niu.edu, 753-7054 Political Culture

In this graduate seminar, we will view politics as a cultural manifestation and engage in comparative analysis of the cultural basis of political behavior and national political systems. Special attention will be given to understanding the religion of Islam, its intellectual aspects (theology) and the contemporary politics of Muslim societies, especially those in Southeast Asia. After Spring break, the course schedule and outline is subject to change to accommodate the preferences of a visiting Muslim professor from Southeast Asia (sponsored by the CSEAS). Also, there are likely to be some modifications in the assigned readings as we go along. .

Note: Everyone is expected to read the "required" readings in advance and to come to the seminar prepared to summarize, critique and integrate them. Students planning on taking the doctoral candidacy exam in comparative politics are expected to become familiar with all the readings listed on this syllabus, both "required" and "supplementary." Toward the end of the semester we will supply these students with a list of questions that are representative of the kinds of questions they will encounter on the exam.


Since the required readings include all or a large portion of the following eight books, they have been ordered and should be available for purchase in local book stores. Those owned by the NIU Library have been placed on (hardcopy) reserve in the Library.

1. Abuza, Militant Islam in Southeast Asia (Lynne Rienner, 2003) [HV 6433.A785 A28 2003] [NIU-?]

2. Diamond, et al. (eds), Islam and Democracy in the Middle East (Johns Hopkins Press, 2003) [JQ 1758.A58I85 2003]

3. Hashmi (ed), Islamic Political Ethics (University of California, 2002) [JC 49.I766 2002]

4. Hefner, Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia (Princeton University Press, 2000) [BP 63.15 H44 2000]

5. Lewis, The Crisis of Islam (Random House, 2003) [BP 182.L48 2003]

6. Mohammadi, Islam Encountering Globalization (Taylor, 2002) [NIU-?]

7. Orens, The Muslim World (H.W. Wilson, 2003) [BP 161.3.M87]

8. Rubin (ed.), Revolutionaries and Reformers (CUP services, 2003) [NIU-?]

Most of the required readings which are not from the above texts are available online (E-reserve) and you will be provided with the URL. Some readings, however, will be available only in hard copy/print at the library reserve desk. In summary, required readings should be located in one of three places, a book ordered for the course (above), E-reserve or Library (hard copy) Reserve.

Course Requirements:

1. Class attendance and oral participation, including class presentation(s) of readings Class will be conducted as a seminar. You are expected to have read the required reading in advance of its scheduled discussion. You will be given an opportunity to volunteer to summarize for the class a reading and identify key issues for discussion. (30 %)

2. A three-hour mid-term examination March 3 (20 %)

3. Either a research design for a comparative study/research (approximately 15 pages) and related annotated bibliography (containing 15-25 sources), or

an analytical paper of approximately 20 pages for possible presentation at International Thai Studies Conference, Council on Thai Studies, NIU Southeast Asian Studies Student Conference, Midwest Conference of Asian Affairs, Midwest Political Science Association or International Studies Association Midwest. Your topic must be submitted in writing and approved by one of us no later than March 17 and the paper will be due no later than April 23rd. (35%)

4. A two-hour final exam over material covered after the Spring break (midterm) Wed, May 5, 6:30 (15%)

Course Schedule and Outline

January 14, Introduction to course themes and assignments

January 21, Political culture as an analytical approach in the study of comparative politics

Required readings:

1.-Mark Irving Lichbach, "Social Theory and Comparative Politics" in Lichbach and Alan S. Zuckerman, eds., Comparative Politics (Cambridge University Press, 1997) 239-76 [JA 86.C52 1997]

2-Marc Howard Ross, "Culture and Identity in Comparative Political Analysis," in Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds., Comparative Politics, pp.42-80

3-Steve Heydemann, "Defending the Discipline," Journal of Democracy, 13:3, July 2002, pp.102-08

4-Robert Inglehart and Marita Carballo, "Does Latin America Exist? (And is There a Confucian Culture?): A Global Analysis of Cross-Cultural Differences," Political Science: Political Science and Politics, March 1997, pp.34-47

5-Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (New York: The Free Press, 1964) pp.328-36, 341-46, 358-73 [HB 175.W364 1964]

Supplementary readings:

-Neil A. Englehart, Culture and Power in Traditional Siamese Government (Cornell SEAP, 2001) pp.

-Andrew Bennet and Alexander George, "Integrating Comparative and Within-Case Analysis: Typological Theory,"

-Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, Political Culture and Political Development ( ) pp.3-26, 512-61

-Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture ( ) 1-44, 136-67, 337-74

-James C. Scott, "Patron-Client Southeast Asia," American Political Science Review, pp.91-113

-James C. Scott, The Moral Economy of the Peasant

-Kamol and Lucien Hanks in Clark D. Neher, ed., Modern Thai Politics ( )

January 28, Political culture as an analytical approach in the study of comparative politics, continued.

Required readings:

1.-Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work (Princeton University Press, 1993) 83-116 [JN 5477.R35 P866 1993]

2.-Fred Halliday, "West encountering Islam: Islamophobia reconsidered," in Ali Mohammadi, ed., Islam Encountering Globalization (Routledge Curzon, 2002) pp.14-35

3.-James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale University Press, ) pp.xv-xxii, 1-27, 184-240 [HN 700.6.K38S267 1985]

4 -Larry Diamond, "Political Culture," in Developing Democracy, pp. 161-217 [JC 421.D4918 1999]

Supplementary readings:

-Benedict Anderson, "The Idea of Power in Javanese Culture," Language and Power: Exploring Political Cultures in Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990) pp.17-77

-Fareed Zakaria, "Culture is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew," Foreign Affairs, 73:2, 1994, pp.109-26

-Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom, Development, and Human Worth," Journal of Democracy, 6:2, 1995, pp.11-19

-Dinesh D'Souza, "Confucius Meets Max Weber," Forbes, 158, November 4, 1996, p.86

Abdul R. Moten, "Islamic Methodology in Political Science," pp. 32-45 in Political Science: An Islamic Perspective JC 49.I766 2002

Fares al-Braizat, "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach," International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43:3, 2002

February 4, Politics and Political Order in Islam

Required readings

1. Bernard Lewis, The Middle East, A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years (New York: Scribner, 1995), pp. 244-70

2. Geoffrey Orens, ed., The Muslim World (The H.W. Wilson Company, 2003), The Reference Shelf, 75:1, Parts I and II, pp.1-68

>Terry C. Muck, "An Introduction to Islam: One God, Many Believers"

>"An Interview with Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf"

>Reshma Memon Yaqub, "Hajj: The Journey of a Lifetime"

>Scott Peterson, "Wahhabi Roots in Saudi Desert"

>Richard Vara, "They're Muslims, But Sufis Still Go Own Way"

>Jerry Useem, "Banking on Allah"

>Caryle Murphy, "In the Throes of a Quiet Revolution"

>Franklin Foer, "Moral Hazard: The Life of a Liberal Muslim">Francis Fukuyama and Nadav Samin,"Can Any Good Come of Radical Islam?"

3. Abdul Rashid Moten,Political Science: An Islamic Perspective, [JC 49.M67 1996]

"Politics in Islam," pp. 17-31 and

"Shari'ah: The Islamic Legal Order"pp. 46-62 and

"Ummah: The Islamic Social Order" pp. 63-81

"Khilafah: The Islamic Political Order" pp. 82-106

4. G.W.Choudhury, "Political Order in Islam," pp. 39-66 in Islam and the Modern Muslim World (E-reserve)

Suggested readings:

-Ali Shariati, on Hajj (BP187.3)

-Akbar S. Ahmed, Islam Today: a Short Introduction to the Muslim World (New York: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 1999)

February 11, Politics and Political Order, cont'd.

Required readings:

1. Murad Wilfried Hofmann, "Governing Under Islam and the Islamic Political System," American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 18:3, Summer 2001 [E-reserve]

2. Sohail H. Hashmi (ed.), Islamic Political Ethics [JC 49 .I766 2002]

Kelsay, "Civil Society and Government in Islam," pp. 3-37

Kazemi, "Perspectives on Islam and Civil Society," pp. 38-55

Hanafi, "Alternative Conceptions of Civil Society," pp. 56-75

3. Diamond et.al. Islam and Democracy in the Middle East, pp. 3-47

Supplementary readings

S.M. Hasanuz Zaman, Economic Functions of an Islamic State [E-reserve]

"The Essentials of the Islamic Economic System," pp. 21-101

"The Economic Policy of the Islamic State," pp. 331-339

Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris, "The True Clash of Civilizations," Foreign Policy, 135, March-April 2003, pp.62-70

Suggested readings

-Thomas W. Lippman, Understanding Islam, An Introduction to the Muslim World, Second Revised Edition (New York: A Meridian Book, 1995) pp.1-69

Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong? [DS 62.4.L488 2002]

February 18, Islam and Democracy

Required readings

1. Ali Mohammadi, "The culture and politics of human rights in the context of Islam," in Mohammadi, ed., Islam Encountering Globalization, pp.11-30.

2. Orens, pp.69-96

>Lisa Beyer et al., "The Women of Islam"

>Madeleine Bunting, "Can Islam Liberate Women?"

>Katherine Millett, "American by Birth"

3. Ayse Kadioglu, "Women's Subordination in Turkey: Is Islam Really the Villain?" Middle East Journal, 48:4, 1994, pp.645-60

4. Sohail H. Hashimi, ed., Islamic Political Ethics (Princeton University Press, 2002) Dale F. Eickelman, "Islam and Ethical Pluralism," pp. 115-134;

Muhammad Khalid Masud, "The Scope of Pluralism in Islamic Moral Traditions,"pp. 135-147

5. Fethullah Gulen, "A Comparative Approach to Islam and Democracy," SAIS Review, 21:2, 2001, pp.133-38

February 25, Islam and democracy, continued.

Required readings:

1. Geoffrey Orens, ed., The Muslim World (The H.W. Wilson Company, 2003), The Reference Shelf, 75:1, Part IV, pp. 99-122

2. Diamond et al., Islam and Democracy in the Middle East, pp. 193-298

Supplementary readings

-M. Steven Fish, "Islam and Authoritarianism," World Politics, 55:1, 2002, pp.4-37

-Alfred Stepan, "Religion, Democracy, and the 'Twin Tolerations'," Journal of Democracy, 11:4, October 2000, pp.37-57

-Adrian Karatnycky, "Muslim Countries and the Democracy Gap," Journal of Democracy, 13:1, 2002, pp.99-112

-Robert W. Hefner, "Public Islam and the Problem of Democratization," Sociology of Religion, 62:4, 2001, pp.491-514

-Daniel Pipes, "Islam is Compatible with Democracy," Geneive Abdo, "Fundamentalist Islam is Not Compatible with Democracy," Auriana Ojeda, ed., Islamic Fundamentalism (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003)

-A. Tamimi, "Islam and Democracy: State-Society Relations in Developing Countries, 1980-1994,"Journal of Islamic Studies, 14:1, 2003, pp.89-90

-Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, "What is Liberal Islam?" Journal of Democracy, 14:2, 2003

-Hugh Goddard, "Islam and Democracy," The Political Quarterly, 73:1, 2002, pp.3-9

-Khurshid Ahmad, "Islam and Democracy: Some Conceptual and Contemporary Dimensions," The Muslim world: a quarterly review of history, culture, religions and the Christian mission in Islamdom, 90:1, 2000

-John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, Islam and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)

-John P. Entelis, Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa (Indiana University Press, 1997)

March 3, Mid-term examination

March 17, Iran, Turkey; Pakistan and Central Asia

Required readings:

1. Diamond et.al. Islam and Democracy... Part II, pp. 109-92 (chapters by Bakhash, Esfandiari, Boroumand and Boroumand, Brumberg, Jahanbegloo, Kar, Ozel, Onis and Keyman

2. Ziya Onis, "Political Islam at the Crossroads: From Hegemony to Co-Existence,"Contemporary Politics, 7:4, 2001, pp.281-98

Supplementary readings

Gareth Jenkins, "Muslim Democrats in Turkey?" Surivival, 45:1, 2003, pp.45-66

-Barry Rubin, Revolutionaries and Reformers: contemporary Islamist movements in the Middle East (Armonk, New : M.E. Sharpe, 2003):

>Reuven Paz, "Radical Islamist movements in Turkey"

>Nilufer Narli, "Fethullah Gulen and his liberal 'Turkish Islam' movement"

-Martha Brill Olcott, "The War on Terrorism in Central Asia and the Cause of Democratic Reform," Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, 11:1, 2003, pp.86-94

-Ahmed, Discovering Islam, pp.107-16, 143-99

-Feldman, After Jihad, pp.81-130

--Ziya Onis, "The Political Economy of Islamic Resurgence in Turkey: The Rise of the Welfare Party in Perspective," Third World Quarterly, 18:4, December 1997

-M. Hakan Yavuz, "Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey," Comparative Politics, October 1997, pp.63-82

-Ely Karmon, "The Demise of Radical Islam in Turkey," Turkistan Newsletter, November 20, 2003

-Marvin G. Weinbaum, "Civic Culture and Democracy in Pakistan," Asian Survey, 36:7, July 1996

Suggested Readings

-Metin Heper and Sule Toktas, "Islam, Modernity, and Democracy in Contemporary Turkey: The Case of Recep Tayyip Erdogbrevean," The Muslim world: a quarterly review of history, culture, religions and the Christian mission in Islamdom, 93:2, 2003

-Ahmed Rashid, Jihad, The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002) pp.32-92, 95-155

-Dilip Hiro, War Without End, The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and Global Response (New York: Routledge, 2002)

Afghanistan, pp.179-264

-Daniel Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001

March 24, Arabs

Required readings:

1. Amin Saikal and Albrecht Schnabel, Democratization in the Middle East: experiences, struggles, challenges (New York: United Nations University Press, 2003) [UN UNU XX.D384 2003]

>Majid Tehranian, "The influence of Islam on attitudes toward democracy in Morocco and Algeria"

>Mark Tessler, "National and regional experiences--The democratic process in Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan"

>Gerald M. Steinberg, "Democracy and peace in Iran and Iraq"

>Amin Saikal, "State power and democratization in North Africa: developments in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya"

2. Diamond et.al. Islam and Democracy..., pp. 48-108 (chapters by Brownlee, Quandt, Maghraoui, Seznec, Herb, Schwedler, Lucas

3. Barry Rubin, Revolutionaries and Reformers: contemporary Islamist movements in the Middle East (Armonk, New : M.E. Sharpe, 2003)

Supplementary readings:

-Mark Tessler and Jodi Nachtway, "Islam and Attitudes toward International Conflict: Evidence from Survey Research in the Arab World," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 42:5, October 1998

Jan Goodwin, Price of Honor: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World, revised/updated (Plume)

-Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, "Islamic Opposition to the Islamic State: the Jamaat-I Islami, 1977-88," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 25:2, May 1993

-Mohammed M. Hafez, Why Muslims Rebel, Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World (Lynne Rienner, 2003)

-Frederic Volpi, Islam and democracy: the failure of dialogue in Algeria (London: Pluto Press, 2003)

-Dilip Hiro, War Without End, The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and Global Response (New York: Routledge, 2002)

Egypt, pp.59-112

Saudi Arabia, pp.113-78


March 31, Indonesia

Required readings:

1. Donald K. Emmerson, Indonesia Beyond Suharto, pp. 3-38 (Cribb), 60-70 (Liddle), and 205-236 (Hefner).[JQ 770.I57 1999]

2. John L. Esposito (ed.), Islam in Asia: Religion, Politics and Society, pp. 209-229 (Johns) [BP63.A1I85 1987]

Supplementary reading:

-Mark Woodward (ed), Toward A New Paradigm: Recent Developments in Indonesian Islamic Thought (Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, 1996)

-Donald J. Porter, Managing Politics and Islam in Indonesia (NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002)

-Douglas Ramage, Politics in Indonesia: Democracy, Islam and the Ideology of Tolerance ( London: Routledge, 1995).

April 7, Indonesia

Required reading:

Robert Hefner, Civil Islam (California and Princeton, 2000), entire.

April 14, Indonesia

Supplementary readings:

-David Martin Jones and Mike Lawrence Smith, "From Konfrontasi to Disintegrasi: ASEAN and the Rise of Islamism in Southeast Asia," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 25, 2002, pp.343-56

-Barry Desker, "Islam and society in South-east Asia after 11 September," Australian Journal of International Affairs, 56:3, 2002, pp.383-94

-Julia Day Howell, "Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival," Journal of Asian Studies, 60:3, August 2001, pp.701-29

-Andrew Tan, "Armed Muslim Separatist Rebellions in Southeast Asia: Persistence, Prospects, and Implications," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 23, 2000, 267-88

-Noorhaidi Hasan, "Faith and Politics: The Rise of the Laskar Jihad in the era of Transition in Indonesia," Indonesia 73 (April 2002), pp. 145-169

April 14, Malaysia

Required readings:

-Hussin Mutalib, Islam and Ethnicity in Malaysian Politics (Oxford University Press, 1990) [BP63.M27H87 1990]

____________. "Islamisation in Malaysia: Between Ideals and Realities," pp. 152-173 in Islam, Muslims and the Modern State (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1994)[JC 49.I85 1994]

-David Camroux, "State Responses to Islamic Resurgence in Malaysia: Accommodation, Co-Option, and Confrontation," 36:9, September 1996, pp.852-68



April 21, the Philippines and mainland Southeast Asia (Burma, Cambodia, Thailand)

Required readings:

-Peter Chalk, "Separatism and Southeast Asia: the Islamic Factor in Southern Thailand, Mindanao, and Aceh," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24, 2001, pp.241-69

-Moshe Yegar, Between Integration and Secession, The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar (Lexington, 2002) (selections)[DS 570.M85 Y44]

-Nakamura Mitsuo, ed. Islam and Civil Society in Southeast Asia (selections)

-Vincent J.H. Houben, "Southeast Asia and Islam," The Annals of the American Academy of Politics and Social Science, 588, July 2003, pp.149-70

April 28, the future of political Islam

Required readings:

-Zachary Abuza, Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror (Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 2003)

-Graham Fuller, "The Future of Political Islam," Foreign Affairs, 81:2, 3-4/2002

-Lewis, The Crisis of Islam, entire

Supplementary readings:

Mohammadi, ed. Islam Encountering Globalization,

-Mustafa Malik, "Bernard Lewis and the Decline of Muslim Civilization," Middle East Policy, 9:2, 2002, pp.161-67

-Mustapha Kamal Pasha, "Predatory Globalization and Democracy in the Islamic World," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 581, 2002, pp.121-32

Lily Z. Rahim, "The Road Less Traveled: Islamic Militancy in Southeast Asia," Critical Asian Studies 35:2 (2003), 209-232

May 5, final exam, 6-7:50


Representative questions for the doctoral comprehensive exam in comparative politics (to be supplied)