Fall 2009                                                                      Instructor: Professor Kikue Hamayotsu   

Department of Political Science                                    Office: Zulauf 414

Northern Illinois University                                           Office Hours: M11:30-1:30/W11-12

E-mail: khamayotsu@niu.edu

Lectures: M/W: 2-3:15PM                             Phone: 815-753-7048

Room: DU 459                                    

Teaching Assistant: Mr. Adam Cox

E-mail: acox@niu.edu

Office Hours: T/TH 11-12:30


Course Overview:                                                            


This course surveys the modern politics of Southeast Asia. The focus of the course will be on thematic questions that are essential to understanding political systems, socio-economic changes and state-society relations in Southeast Asia, but that are generally pertinent to the developing world.


In the past couple of decades, Southeast Asia has undergone tremendous political and socio-economic transformations. Prior to the economic crisis of 1997, growth rates were amongst the highest in the world. Both wealth and poverty have increased since then in comparative terms. Some authoritarian regimes have been confronted with increasing democratizing pressures, while pressures have fallen elsewhere.  New movements of religious revival (both liberal and radical), civil society and ethnic conflicts are challenging state authority. Why have some authoritarian regimes such as Indonesia and the Philippines achieved a transition to democracy, while others such as Burma and Malaysia have not? How can we explain resilience of some authoritarian regimes in the region? Why has Indonesia experienced a large number of Islamic radical movements while Malaysia has not? Do these variations in outcomes across countries in the region have to do with culture, institutions, or other structural factors?


This course will offer students analytical tools and approaches to investigate such issues of political and policy significance from historical, comparative and analytical perspectives. Students will learn how to account for various patterns of experiences across the nations, localities and groups under investigation. The issues taken up in the course include colonial legacies, state formation, democratization, authoritarianism, nationalism, business and politics, religious movements, ethnic conflicts, and civil society.


Course readings are chosen based on the merits of their analytical arguments rather than their country coverage, to enable students to achieve the following goals: (1) to gain empirical and conceptual understandings of the political dynamics of the region; (2) to think comparatively within the region and across the developing world more generally; and (3) to address and debate theoretical questions in social science/political science through Southeast Asian empirical cases. We do not, therefore, cover every single country in the region in the same depth, but focus primarily on the following countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Burma. The course will refer to other country cases such as Singapore and Vietnam, however, whenever they are relevant to our investigation. 


This is a lecture course primarily intended for undergraduate students. In order to encourage discussion among students, weekly class meetings consist of lectures followed by discussion. Students will make oral presentation and discuss the sectionfs readings.


The course is largely divided into three sections. The first is on colonial legacies and the emergence of modern eSoutheast Asiaf. We will examine the regionfs dramatic transformations under direct and indirect colonial rule to identify how colonial rule shaped formation of modern nation-states and political structures that considerably vary among nations within the region. The second section focuses on political transformations and state-society relations in the post-independence period. It seeks to explore varying patterns of political and socio-economic transformations, regime change and maintenance. In the third and final section, we will examine issues that broadly pertain to mobilization, development, and identity. Such issues as religious and ethnic conflicts, Islamic radicalism, and the intersection of business and politics will be covered here.




Some political science background and/or at least completion of POLS 260 (Introduction to Comparative Politics) are highly recommended. A risk resulting from ignoring this advice will entirely be studentsf. Students who have some Southeast Asian Studies background are asked to consult the instructor before deciding to take the course.


Course Requirements:                                                        


1.      Class attendance:

a.         You are required to attend all the classes. More than three unexcused absences will jeopardize your attendance grade and you will risk failing the course. Please notify your TA in advance if you must miss class.

2.      Do read the required readings. All the course requirements will enable students to develop their analytical skills in the course of your study of Southeast Asian politics. Students are expected to come to class having done the reading beforehand and to actively participate in discussion. It is important to approach the readings with the following questions in mind: (a) what is the central issue/debate? (b) what is the main argument/point? (c) what is the evidence for the argument? (d) what are the problems with the argument? (e) can you think of counterarguments?  Students should also address these questions in writing assignments.

3.      One short term paper of 5-6pp. in length:

a.         The question is given in class in advance.

b.        The paper must be double-spaced and properly footnoted.

c.         Paper is due on November 23. Submit a hard copy in class.

4.      Two in-class exams: composed of a short-answer section and some essay questions.

a.         Mid-term exam

b.        Final exam

5.      One class presentation:

a.         On the first day of class, students will be asked to sign-up for one week in which to present. The presentation should not coincide with the short analytical paper.

b.        The presentation should be a critique of the readings and must address central controversies to stimulate class discussion. The critique can also include issues of policy relevance. You can be creative, but donft just summarize the readings. The presentation should be approximately 10 minutes.

6.      Random quizzes:

a.         A handful of brief quizzes are given randomly throughout the semester. They focus on the required readings. The purpose of this component of the evaluation is to encourage the students to do the assigned readings, and to come to class prepared to discuss the material. Quiz questions may be included in the mid-term/final exams. If it becomes clear that people are not coming to class prepared, the instructor reserves the right to take the drastic action of giving pop quizzes. Otherwise, quizzes will be announced in the class before they are due.


Grade distribution:                                                           


1.      Class attendance and random quizzes (10%)

2.      Presentation (10%)

3.      Term paper (20%)

4.      Exams (30%+30%)


Course rules:                                                                    


1.      Late submission will result in grade reduction for a half-mark per day (e.g., gAh will be reduced to gA-h if submission is a day late).

2.      Plagiarism Policy: According to the NIU Undergraduate Catalogue gStudents are guilty of plagiarism, intentional or not, if they copy material from books, magazines, or other sources without identifying and acknowledging them. Students guilty of, or assisting others in, either cheating or plagiarism on an assignment, quiz, or examination may receive a grade of F for the course involved and may be suspended or dismissed from the university.h In short, all ideas that are not your own or well known must be footnoted. A general rule is that if the information cannot be found in three or more commonly available sources it should be footnoted. All direct quotations must be placed in quotation marks. If you are unsure as to what should be footnoted either play it safe and footnote, or ask for assistance. Failure to adhere to the Universityfs plagiarism policy will result in punishments ranging from a failed course grade to suspension and even expulsion, depending on the egregiousness of the infraction. Please refer to the following link for more information: http://polisci.niu.edu/polisci/audience/plagiarism.shtml.

3.      Basic classroom manners:

Ø        Turn off your electronic devices (e.g, I-pod, I-phone, Cell phone).

Ø        No crossword, Sudoku, or any other game is permitted.


Course Readings:                                                           


All the textbooks have been ordered and are at the university bookstore. The rest of the readings will be uploaded in Blackboard.


Books to Purchase:

Aspinall, Edward. 2005. Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance, and Regime Change in Indonesia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Norman Owen, ed., The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005).


Class Schedule                                                               


Section I: The Emergence of Modern Nation-State in Southeast Asia


Week 1-1 (Aug 24).          Course Introduction


Week 1-2 (Aug 26)           What is Southeast Asia? (1)

Owen, chapter 1 (Introduction)


Week 2-1 (Aug 31).         What is Southeast Asia? (2)


Anderson, Benedict. 1998. The Spectre of Comparison: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World. London and New York: Verso: Introduction.

Zakaria, Fareed. 1994. Culture is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew. Foreign Affairs 73 (2):109-26.


Week 2-2 (Sept 2).           Colonialism: Great transformation and its opponents (1)

Video: Riding the tiger 1.

Owen, chaps. 3-4 and 12-13.


Week 3-1 (Sept 7).           LABOR DAY HOLIDAY [NO CLASS]


Week 3-2 (Sept 9).           Colonialism: Colonial State, Class and Ethnicity (1)


Owen, chap.14 and 15.


Week 4-1 (Sept 14).         Colonialism: Colonial State, Class and Ethnicity (2)


Owen, chap.16 and 17.


Hirschman, Charles. 1986. The Making of Race in Colonial Malaya: Political Economy and Racial Ideology. Sociological Forum 1 (2):330-61.

Additional reading:

Callahan, Mary P. 2003. Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca: Cornell University Press: chap.1 (pp.22-44).


Week 4-2 (Sept 16).         Nationalism and Nationalist Movements: Imagining gNationalh Communities


Case: Indonesia


Video: Riding the tiger 2


Cribb, Robert. 1999. Nation: Making Indonesia. In Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity Economy Society Transition, edited by D. K. Emmerson. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.


Week 5-1 (Sept 21).         State Formation (1): Theories and Practices


              Case: Burma/the Philippines


Callahan, Mary P. 2003. Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca: Cornell University Press: 1-20.

Hutchcroft, Paul D. 2000. Colonial Masters, National Politicos, and Provincial Lords: Central Authority and Local Autonomy in the American Philippines, 1900-1913. Journal of Asian Studies 59 (2):277-306.


Week 5-2 (Sept 23).         State Formation (2)

Case: Malaysia

Stubbs, Richard. 1997. The Malayan Emergency and the Development of the Malaysian State. In The Counter-insurgent State: Guerrilla Warfare and State Building in the Twentieth Century, edited by P. B. Rich and R. Stubbs. New York: St. Martin's Press: Stubbs Chapter on Malaysia.


Section II: Governments and Politics of Contemporary Southeast Asia


Week 6-1 (Sept 28).         Political Regimes: Longevity and Fragility of Authoritarian regimes (1)


Case: Indonesia


Aspinall, chap.2 (pp.20-48).

Owen, chap.31.


Week 6-2 (Sept 30).         Authoritarian Regimes 2


Case: Indonesia


              Video: Riding the Tiger 3


Crouch, Harold. 1998. Indonesia's 'Strong' State. In Weak and Strong States in Asia-Pacific Societies. Sydney: Allen & Unwin in association with the Department of International Relations, RSPAS, ANU.


Week 7-1 (Oct 5).             Political Regimes: Democratic Transitions (1)


Bartrand, Jacques. 1998. Growth and Democracy in Southeast Asia. Comparative Politics 30 (3):355-75.

Week 7-2 (Oct 7).             MID-TERM EXAM (IN-CLASS)


Week 8-1 (Oct 12).           Political Regimes: Democratic Transitions (2)


Case: Indonesia


Aspinall, chap.8.


Week 8-2 (Oct 14).           Political Regimes: Democratic Transition (3)


              Case: the Philippines


Anderson, Benedict. 1998. Cacique Democracy in the Philippines. In The Spectre of Comparison: chap.9.

Owen, chap.33.


Week 9-1 (Oct 19).           Political Regimes: Dominant Party Systems


Case: Malaysia[KH1] 

gLetter from Malaysia: Eastern Promises,h The New Yorker, May 18, 2009.

Owen, chap.29.

Additional reading:

Crouch, Harold. 1993. Malaysia: Neither authoritarian nor democratic. In Southeast Asia in the 1990s: Authoritarianism, Democracy and Capitalism, edited by K. Hewison, R. Robison and G. Rodan. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.


Week 9-2 (Oct 21).           Civil Society: Social Movements


Case: Indonesia


Aspinall, pp.5-18, and chap.4 (pp.86-115).


Week 10-1 (Oct 26).         Civil Society: The Limits of Civil Society 


Case: Malaysia


Jesudason, James V. 1995. Statist Democracy and the Limits of Civil Society in Malaysia. Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 33 (3):335-56.


Week 10-2 (Oct 28).         Towards Democratic Consolidation? Local eBossf Politics


Ockey, James. 1998. Crime, Society, and Politics in Thailand. In Gangsters, Democracy, and the State in Southeast Asia, edited by C. A. Trocki. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asian Program.


Section III: Mobilization, Resistance, and Identity



Week 11-1 (Nov 2).          Ethnicity and Politics: Ethnic conflict (1)


Case: Indonesia (Aceh)


Aspinall, Edward. 2006. Violence and Identity Formation in Aceh under Indonesian Rule. In Verandah of Violence: The Background to the Aceh Problem, edited by A. Reid. Seattle: Singapore University Press in association with University of Washington Press.


Week 11-2 (Nov 4).          Ethnicity and Politics: Ethnic Conflict (2)


Case: Southern Thailand


McCargo, Duncan. 2007. Thaksin and the Resurgence of Violence in the Thai South. In Rethinking Thailand's Southern Violence. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.


Week 12-1 (Nov 9).          Political Violence: Killing Fields


              Case: Cambodia

              Video: gReturn to the Killing Fieldsh        

Owen, chap.25 and 35.


Week 12-2 (Nov 11).        Political Economy: Politics of Growth

MacIntyre, Andrew, ed. 1994. Business and Government in Industrializing Asia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Introduction.

Owen, chap.27.


Week 13-1 (Nov 16).       Religion and Politics: Civil and Uncivil Religions


              Case: Indonesia


TBA[KH2] .


Week 13-2 (Nov 18).        Religion and Politics: Religion and Political Transformations


Case: Burma


Matthews, Bruce. 1993. Buddhism under a Military Regime: The Iron Heel in Burma. Asian Survey 33 (4):408-23.

Article on Burma, New Yorker.


Week 14-1 (Nov 23).      Rebellions and Resistance: Everyday Forms of Resistance


Kerkvliet, Benedict J. Tria. 2005. The Power of Everyday Politics: How Vietnamese Peasants Transformed National Policy. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press: 1-36, 234-43.


Week 14-2 (Nov 25)        THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY: NO CLASS


Week 15-1 (Nov 30).       Southeast Asia: Futures and Prospects

Week 15-2 (Dec 2).          Reviews

DECEMBER 7                FINAL EXAM




















Tips for Doing Well in this Class


1. Do the readings AND come to class.  Lectures will refer to the assigned readings but they will not summarize them and they are not an adequate substitute. Likewise, lectures will cover material that is not in the readings, and that may appear on the exams.


2. Read critically.  As you read, note questions that you would like to raise in lecture or section, and think critically about the author's evidence and arguments. 


3. Think comparatively.  Ask yourself how the particular case you are reading about compares with similar developments in other countries, regions, or periods.


4. Participate actively in discussion sections and in lecture.  Take notes on lectures, and be engaged in the question and discussion periods that will be held during the final minutes of class.


5. Keep up with current events. If you do not already do so, read the international pages of at least one major national / international paper every day.  Examples include The New York Times, The Chicago Tribune, The Washington Post, The Financial Times, and The Wall Street Journal.  Think about how contemporary events relate to the themes and cases studied in class. 


6. Know the locations of the countries and regions we cover.  Geography is critically important for understanding a nation's historical development and importantly influences national security interests and many other areas of political life.  If a name of a country is mentioned that you can't pinpoint on a map (a vague sense of where it is located is insufficient!), locate it on a map. Also note what its neighboring countries and regions are. Maps of the countries and regions of the world we will cover can be found in the Essentials of Comparative Politics text.


7. Follow up on topics you find particularly interesting by reading beyond the assigned texts. Look for hints of where to find additional materials by looking at footnotes and references in the readings or by asking your T.A. or me for suggested additional readings.


8. Take advantage of office hours. The T.A.s and I are here to help if you're having trouble understanding concepts or if you are simply interested in further discussing topics covered in class (see #7 above).


Other Important Information


Academic Dishonesty

Regarding plagiarism, the NIU Undergraduate Catalog states: "Students are guilty of plagiarism, intentional or not, if they copy material from books, magazines, or other sources without identifying and acknowledging them. Students guilty of, or assisting others in, either cheating or plagiarism on an assignment, quiz, or examination may receive a grade of F for the course involved and may be suspended or dismissed from the university." The above statement encompasses a paper written in whole or in part by another; a paper copied word-for-word or with only minor changes from another source; a paper copied in part from one or more sources without proper identification and acknowledgment of the sources; a paper that is merely a paraphrase of one or more sources, using ideas and/or logic without credit even though the actual words may be changed; and a paper that quotes, summarizes or paraphrases, or cuts and pastes words, phrases, or images from an Internet source without identification and the address of the web site.


Students with Disabilities

Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, NIU is committed to making reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Those students with disabilities that may have an impact on their course work must register with the Center for Access-Ability Resources (CAAR) on the fourth floor of the Health Services Building (753-1303). CAAR will assist students in making appropriate instructional and/or examination accommodations with course instructors. It is important that CAAR and instructors be informed of any disability-related needs during the first two weeks of the semester.


Department of Political Science Web Site

Undergraduates are strongly encouraged to consult the Department of Political Science web site on a regular basis.  This up-to-date, central source of information will assist students in contacting faculty and staff, reviewing course requirements and syllabi, exploring graduate study, research career options, tracking department events, and accessing important details related to undergraduate programs and activities.  To reach the site, go to http://polisci.niu.edu


Undergraduate Writing Awards

The Department of Political Science will recognize, on an annual basis, outstanding undergraduate papers written in conjunction with 300-400 level political science courses or directed studies.  Authors do not have to be political science majors or have a particular class standing.  Winners are expected to attend the Departmentfs spring graduation ceremony, where they will receive a certificate and $50.00.  Papers, which can be submitted by students or faculty, must be supplied in triplicate to a department secretary by the end of March.  All copies should have two cover pages – one with the studentfs name and one without the studentfs name.  Only papers written in the previous calendar year can be considered for the award.  However, papers completed in the current spring semester are eligible for the following yearfs competition even if the student has graduated.


Classroom Decorum

Students are to arrive at class on time.  Two tardy arrivals are equivalent to one class absence.  Students are to remain for the entire session unless excused by the professor beforehand or confronted with a serious personal emergency.  For instance, it is not acceptable to students to walk in and out of class to answer cell phones, take casual bathroom and smoking breaks, or attend to other personal matters.   Cell phones, pagers, or any electronic devices that make noise must be turned off during class unless the instructor has been notified beforehand of a special circumstance (e.g., sick family member, pregnant wife, special childcare situation, etc.).  No one should talk while someone else is talking; this includes comments meant for a classmate rather than the entire group.  What may seem like a whisper or a harmless remark to one person can be a distraction to someone else, particularly in a small room.  Overall, classroom dialogue and behavior should always be courteous, respectful of others, and consistent with the expectations set forth by the university.


 [KH1]NY Article given to GA for posting.

 [KH2]Hefner 1999?