The Origin of Politics


POLS 321                                                                                           Dr. Rebecca J. Hannagan

Fall 2009                                                                                             406 Zulauf Hall

T/TH 3:30-4:45 - DU 461                                                         

                                                                                                            Hours: 12:45 - 3:15 Tues


Course Objective: 

In this course we will draw on evolutionary theory and specifically evolutionary psychology to frame our approach to studying political behavior.  This is a research-based class.  The readings for this course consist of a survey of recent research from the fields of biology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and political science. 


The readings for this course are not typical of a course in political science.  Some of the articles are quite dense and may contain complex methodologies.  Do not let this scare you away.  I do not expect you to understand everything you will be reading immediately.  I do, however, expect you to spend some time with the readings and do your best to get at what each reading is about, generally, and then think about why it matters to the study of political behavior.  Sometimes this will not be obvious or you will not really understand the material until it has been discussed in class.  You will also have to do a considerable amount of analytical thinking and writing in this course.  As we progress through the material it is my hope that you will become more comfortable with the readings and your ability to react to them.  Reading difficult material and then thinking analytically about the possible implications is a skill – and a skill that you can learn. 


Course Materials: 


·         Articles posted on Blackboard under Course Documents


You are expected to have your reading done each day before you come to class.  This is a seminar style course, meaning the focus is more on discussion than lecture.  It is important that you come to class prepared to discuss the material. 


All of your papers must be submitted via Blackboard.  I will use SafeAssign to check for plagiarism on all of your written assignments.


Calculation of Grades: 

Your grade in this course will consist of your performance on two exams (there will be no cumulative final exam), one longer paper, and three very short reaction papers.  The following is a breakdown of how the grades will be weighted:


Midterm Exam             20%                 Reaction Papers                       30%                

Final Exam                  20%                 Paper                           30%                



I will adhere to the following grading scale:

100-97% = A+

89-87% = B+

79-77% = C+

69-67% = D+

59% < = F

96-93% = A

86-83% = B

76-73% = C

66-63% = D


92-90% = A-

82-80% = B-

72-70% = C-

62-60% = D-




General Information: 

I do not accept late work, nor do I offer make-up exams (NO EXCUSES!).  If your paper is late you will receive a 0 on that assignment.  Since all papers must be submitted to Blackboard, I expect the date and time stamp to be the date the paper is due and prior to when the class meets.  Further, if you are not present for an exam, you will receive a 0 on that exam.  If you have a situation that requires exception, you must notify me well in advance and be prepared to produce documentation. 


Blackboard is your friend.  Check it often for announcements and for important course documents such as your readings and power points.  I reserve the right to modify the schedule in the interest of time or due to the difficulty of the material.  If I decide to modify the schedule I will notify the class immediately of my decision.  If changes are made and you are not aware of them because you do not regularly attend class or choose to sleep during class there will be no exceptions made to accommodate you.  It is in your best interest to attend every class and pay attention to the material being covered.  You will use Blackboard to submit your written assignments for this class.


No cell phone use during class (including text messaging).  Please turn your cell phones to silent or off (and not just on vibrate).  No laptop or blackberry use during class.  Do not text message, read the newspaper, sleep during class, come late or leave class early as these are inappropriate behaviors for a university class and are disruptive to your peers.  Be respectful of those who are interested in being active participants in their education. 


This syllabus is a contract between me (the professor) and you (the student).  The syllabus will be available on Blackboard throughout the semester for your reference.  If you have any questions about the policies set forth in the syllabus, I highly recommend that you talk to me during the first week of classes.  It is at that time that any questions you may have about policies can be addressed.  After that, if you choose to remain in the class I assume that you agree to the policies and procedures I have set forth in the syllabus. 


Academic Dishonesty:  

The maintenance of academic honesty and integrity is of vital concern to the Department of Political Science and the University community. Any student found guilty of academic dishonesty shall be subject to both academic and disciplinary sanctions.  If I find that you have plagiarized your academic work, you will receive an F on the assignment – no exceptions.  Again, all of your papers must be submitted via Blackboard.  I will use SafeAssign to check for plagiarism.


If you are caught cheating, falsifying, or otherwise misrepresenting your work twice you will fail the class.  In addition, if I suspect academic dishonesty your name will be turned over to the Director of Undergraduate Studies and the Chair of the Political Science Department who will make a determination as to further disciplinary action which may include academic probation or expulsion.


Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, the following:


*fabrication and falsification


*misrepresentation to avoid academic work



Other Information: 


Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, NIU is committed to making reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities.  Those students with disabilities that may have some impact on their coursework and for which they may require accommodations should notify the Center for Access-Ability Resources (CAAR) on the fourth floor of the Health Services Building.  CAAR will assist students in making appropriate accommodations with course instructors.  It is important that CAAR and instructors be informed of any disability-related needs during the first two weeks of the semester.


Undergraduate Writing Awards

The Department of Political Science will recognize, on an annual basis, outstanding undergraduate papers written in conjunction with 300-400 level political science courses or directed studies. Authors do not have to be political science majors or have a particular class standing. Winners are expected to attend the Department’s spring graduation ceremony where they will receive a certificate and $50.00. Papers, which can be submitted by students or faculty, must be supplied in triplicate to a department secretary by February 28. All copies should have two cover pages – one with the student’s name and one without the student’s name. Only papers written in the previous calendar year can be considered for the award. However, papers completed in the current spring semester are eligible for the following year’s competition even if the student has graduated.


Department of Political Science Web Site

Undergraduates are strongly encouraged to consult the Department of Political Science web site on a regular basis. This up-to-date, central source of information will assist students in contacting faculty and staff, reviewing course requirements and syllabi, exploring graduate study, researching career options, tracking department events, and accessing important details related to undergraduate programs and activities. To reach the site, go to




Tentative Schedule:


August 25:  Introduction and course overview


August 27:  Epistemology, Science and the Standard Social Science Model



I.          Evolutionary Theory and Political Behavior


September 1:  Primer on Evolution and Evolutionary Psychology

       Watch Louise Leakey - The Evolutionary Origins of Humans (


·         Read Cosmides and Tooby, “Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer.”


September 3:  Primer on Evolution and Evolutionary Psychology, continued

·         Watch Spencer Wells - DNA, population genetics, and the diversity of humankind (


·         Cosmides and Tooby article continued


September 8:  Social Cooperation – Machiavellian Intelligence

·         Watch the BBC’s Planet Earth segment on jungles – carrying capacity, group size, and inter-group coalitionary aggression


·         Read Orbell et al., “’Machiavellian’ Intelligence as a Basis for the Evolution of Cooperative Dispositions.”    American Political Science Review. 98: 1-15.


·         Article from the Economist, October 6, 2007:  “Patience, fairness and the human condition.” 


September 10:  Social Cooperation – Mach Intelligence, continued

·         Watch Jane Goodall - Chimpanzees and conservation (


·         Watch Susan Savage-Rumbaugh - Bonobos and culture (


·         Orbell et al. article continued



September 15:  Social Cooperation – Egalitarianism

·         Read Cashdan, “Egalitarianism among Hunters and Gatherers.”  American Anthropologist.  82: 116-120.


·         Read Gintis, “Explaining Altruistic Behavior in Humans.”  Evolution and Human Behavior. 24: 153-172.


·         First Reaction Paper Due


September 17:  Social Cooperation – Egalitarianism and Strong Reciprocity

       Gintis article continued


·         Read Fehr and Fishbacher, “Third-party Punishment and Social Norms.”  Evolution and Human Behavior.  25: 63-87.


September 22:  Social Cooperation – Wary Cooperators

·         Read Hibbing and Alford, “Accepting Authoritative Decisions:  Humans as Wary Cooperators.”  American Journal of Political Science. 48: 62-76.



September 24:  Social Cooperation – Equality and Monkeys (?!?)

·         Read Brosnan and DeWaal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay.”  Nature. 425: 297-299.


·         Read Bowles and Gintis, “Is Equality Passe?  Homo Reciprocans and the Future of Egalitarian Politics.”  Boston Review, 1998.


September 29:  Human Nature – Egalitarian or Hierarchical?

·         Read Boehm, Chapters 1-2 of Hierarchy in the Forest.  Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.


October 1:  Human Nature – Egalitarian or Hierarchical?

·         Read Boehm, Chapter 3 of Hierarchy in the Forest.  Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.



October 6:  Human Nature – Conflict and War

·         Read Wrangham, “Evolution of Coalitionary Killing.”  Yearbook of Physical Anthropology.  42: 1-30.



October 8:  Human Nature - Conflict and War

·         Read Shergill et al., “Two Eyes for an Eye: The Neuroscience of Force Escalation.”  Science.  301: 187.


·         Second Reaction Paper Due.


October 13:  First Exam


II.        Testing Evolutionary Concepts in Political Science


October 15:  Human Nature – Egalitarian or Hierarchical . . . or both . . . and gendered?

       Watch Elaine Morgan - Aquatic Ape Hypothesis  (


·         Read Hannagan, “Gendered Political Behavior:  A Darwinian Feminist Approach.”  Sex Roles: A Journal of Research.  59: 465-475.


October 20:  Human Nature – Egalitarian or Hierarchical . . . or both . . . and gendered?

·         Read McDermott, “Gender Differences in a Simulated War Game.” 


October 22:  A Theory of Political Behavior

·         Smith et al., “Evolutionary Theory and Political Leadership: Why Certain People Do Not Trust Decision-Makers” The Journal of Politics.


October 27:  A Theory of Political Leadership, continued

·         Smith et al., “Evolutionary Theory and Political Leadership: Why Certain People Do Not Trust Decision-Makers” The Journal of Politics.


October 29:  Leader and Follower Behavior

·         Larimer et al., “Balancing Ambition and Gender Among Decision Makers.”  The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.  614: 56-73.


·         Third Reaction Paper Due.


November 3:  Neuroscience and Political Behavior

·         Read Dolan, “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.”  Science.  298: 1191-1194.


November 5:  Neuroscience and Political Behavior

·         Read McDermott, “The Feeling of Rationality: the Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science.”  Perspectives on Politics.  2: 691-706.


November 10:  Neuroscience and Political Behavior

·         Read Hibbing et al., “The Neural Basis of Representative Democracy.”  Unpublished manuscript under review.


November 12:  Groups and Political Behavior

·         Read Van Vugt et al., “Gender Differences in Cooperation and Competition.”  Psychological Science.  18: 19-23.


November 17:  Gendered Groups and Political Decision Making

·         Read Hannagan and Larimer “Decision Making in Gendered Groups: Evidence from a Laboratory Experiment.”  Political Behavior.


November 19:  Neuroscience and Political Behavior

·         Read Eisenberger et al., “Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion.”  Science.  302: 290-292.


November 24:  Neuroscience and Political Behavior

·         Watch Nina Jablonski - Race and Climate (


·         Read Richeson and Shelton, “When Prejudice Does Not Pay: Effects of Interracial Contact on Executive Function.”  Psychological Science.  14: 287-290.


December 1:  In-Groups, Out-Groups and Political Decision Making

·         Kurzban et al., “Can Race Be Erased? Coalitional Computation and Social Categorization.”  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  98: 15387-15392.


·         Paper Due


December 3:  Last Day of Class – Wrap-Up Lecture, Discussion and Review for Final


December 8:  Second Exam - 4:00 - 5:50 pm






Reaction Paper Assignment


A reaction paper is a two-page (typed, double-spaced, 12 pt. font) “reaction” to a group of readings.  I want you to react to the readings and not summarize the readings.  I read them.  I know what they are about.  I do not want a book report.  I want your reaction paper to illustrate that you had some sort of an “intellectual struggle” with the material.  I want you to take up one or more of the issues raised and talk about the problems, implications, your proposed solution, a different (a.k.a. “better”) way of looking at the issue, etc.  Think big.  This is hard, but another challenge is that it must ONLY BE TWO PAGES LONG. You will be down-graded if you go beyond two pages.  I recommend you get your thoughts down on paper then walk away from it for a day or so.  When you come back to it with fresh eyes you will be able to decipher what is important to say and what is not.  [Note: reaction papers done 20 minutes before class are generally really bad.]  Your reaction papers are to be submitted via Blackboard and will be checked for plagiarism using SafeAssign.


Here are some Dos and Don’ts that may help you:




·         Be analytical – think BIG!  What are the implications of the key points of a reading or readings in the short-term, long-term, etc.?

·         Challenge the argument being made by an author or authors and suggest an alternative

·         Consider problems with the approach or methodology being used and suggest an alternative

·         Integrate common themes among the readings wherever you can





·         Summarize

·         Tell me you think the reading was long, boring, interesting, funny, etc.  You are not a literary critic.

·         State the obvious

·         Ignore the important themes among the readings

·         GO OVER TWO PAGES!!!





Long Paper Assignment:  The Literature Review

The literature review should include 6 academic sources and should be 8-10 pages long (typed, double-spaced, 12 pt. font, regular margins) with proper citations.  This must be submitted via Blackboard and will be checked with SafeAssign for plagiarism.

Not to be confused with a book review or a book report, a literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work. The purpose is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic.

The purpose of a literature review is to:

·         Place each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the subject under review

·         Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration

·         Identify new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in, previous research

·         Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies

·         Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort

·         Point the way forward for further research

·         Place one's original work (in the case of theses or dissertations) in the context of existing literature

Literature reviews should comprise the following elements:

·         An overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review

·         Division of works under review into categories (e.g. those in support of a particular position, those against, and those offering alternative theses entirely)

·         Explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others

·         Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research

In assessing each piece, consideration should be given to:

·         Provenance—What are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence (e.g. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings)?

·         Objectivity—Is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?

·         Persuasiveness—Which of the author's theses are most/least convincing?

·         Value—Are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?

After selecting a problem to investigate, you need to read all about your topic. A literature review should place your question or problem in the context of other work that has been done in the field. It would not be uncommon for you to read parts of 20 or more studies.

First, a word of what NOT to do: Do not write an annotated bibliography, which presents the sources one at a time and summarizes the articles. Instead, you want to integrate and synthesize the works you have read. Discuss the literature based on the dimensions of the problem that you are investigating. 

If you are investigating an ongoing controversy, you might organize the information into opposing camps, and highlight not only the disagreements in conclusions, but also in assumptions, data, and methods.

Here is an important point to note: you may not find material exactly on your topic. Fine. Find related studies and findings. Again, your job is both to tell what is known and what is not known, but simply speculated, or theorized, about.


·          Present the basic theory / theories in this field.

·          Attempt to be exhaustive; this means thinking of all related angles.

·          Make sure you get the very latest research included -- for instance, in many areas it would be common  to cite literature from the last six months.

·          Organize the literature to provide the contours of the field.

·          Use names and dates of authors you are using.

·          Paraphrase or use quotes.

·          Look at examples. Journals can be a good source for identifying what a lit review is to look like.

·          Make sure the articles you are examining are research articles, and not editorials or book reviews.


·          Think that you have to find something exactly on your topic -- if there was something already done on it, we could both read that study instead of your paper. Instead, think of the different components of your topic, and find relevant material.

·          Plagiarize. This can be done in numerous ways, purposefully or accidentally. It is a serious infraction on academic integrity and will be treated as such. Three examples are drawn from Babbie (A-11):

"You cannot use another writer's exact words without using quotation marks and giving a complete citation, which indicates the source of the quotation such that your reader could locate the quotation in the original context."

"It is also not acceptable to edit or paraphrase another's words and present the revised version as your own work."

"Finally, it is not even acceptable to present another's ideas as your own -- even if you use totally different words to express those ideas."

Finally, you will want to consult with me if it has crossed your mind to use a paper that you have written for another class.  This is referred to as “double-dipping.”  It is the attitude of at least some of us in political science that this is not acceptable.  I consider it a form of academic dishonesty.  While it is good for students to have a substantive interest that they pursue in more than one paper, this is to be distinguished from the scenario of submitting in two classes the same paper. When in doubt, (a) err on the cautious side, and (b) talk with me.