Northern Illinois University                                        Dustin Berna

Fall 2007                                                                     Dberna@niu.edu

                                                                                    815-991-5341 (home)

                                                                                    815-753-1022 (office)

Office Location: Zulauf 411

Office Hours: TTH 11:00-1:45

TTH   3:30-5:30

 

Course Syllabus: Introduction to International Relations

Political Science 285

 

A global human society based on poverty for the many and prosperity for a few, characterized by islands of wealth surrounded by a sea of poverty, is indefensible.

          – President Thabo Mbeki (2002) 

 

Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable right of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.

     —Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)


People say to me, you [the Iraqis] are not the Vietnamese; you have no jungles and swamps to hide in.  I reply let our cities be our swamps and buildings our jungles.

 – Tariq Aziz

 

If the war you are talking about today had been dealt with from the beginning through reason and logic and without excitement, it would not have grown so in dimension or ferocity.

 – Thucydides

 

The question is what shall we do to enter the world state?  We need to force what our enemy would not have.  This force should be superior to technology and weapons.  Our balancing force is the newly born and awakened Islam that is prepared to make sacrifices throughout the world and our Islamic Republic will survive if it’s backed by global force.

  – Ayatollah Khomeini (1989)

 

Course Description:

 

This course is an introduction to world politics and is intended to give the student a better understanding of international relations, complex issues and perspectives affecting the world community.  We will investigate many aspects of international relations such as the dominate theories of international relations, the history of the nation-state, the definition of power, Islamic fundamentalism, terrorism, war, ethnic conflict, political economy, international institutions, transnational organizations, trade, modernization, dependency theory, imperialism, globalization, and the foreign policy of the United States and its impact on the world community.  Students are expected to keep up to date with current political and global events by reading an international newspaper each day.  

 

 

 

 

Grading:

           

5 short papers:                                    40%                

Midterm Exam                                    30%

Final Exam:                                         30%    

 

Regular attendance is mandatory and will be taken at the beginning of each class.  Any student arriving late to class after attendance is taken will be marked absent; there will be no exceptions.  More than 3 absences will result in a five-point reduction on final grade for each additional absence.  Please note that a significant number of unexcused absences will result in a failing course grade.  The best way to perform well in this course is to attend and prepare for each class.    

 

For each of the 5 weekly papers, the student is expected to find an article of international interest in any major National and/or International newspaper and/or news source and write a 2-3-page paper on that article.  A national newspaper would include the New York Times (Newyorktimes.com), the Washington Post (Washingtonpost.com), the Wall Street Journal (Wallstreetjounal.com) ABCnews.com, CBSnews.com, Aljazeera.com/home.asp, CNN.com, Foxnews.com, or the BBC.  The Times Picayune is not considered a national/international newspaper.  Each paper should consist of three parts: 1) observation; 2) connection; 3) speculation.  Observations should be a summary of the article.  Connections should be a connecting the article you have chosen with one of the dominate theories of international relations and an explanation of why you think your article is a manifestation of that theory.  Speculations allow you to wonder about various possibilities.  Why do you think that particular issue addressed in the article is important? Do you think it will become more or less important? Is there an emerging trend? No student is allowed to hand in more than one paper per week.

 

Academic dishonesty on papers will not be tolerated and will result in an automatic F on the assignment. 

 

The midterm will be worth 25% of the final grade and be a take-home exam consisting of ten essay questions.  Your mid-term exam is due by the end of class on October 21.  The student is expected to write 20-22 typed pages.  

 

If mid-term exam is handed in after class time on Tuesday October 21, there will be a mid-term grade reduction of 25% for the first seven days and an additional 25% for the following seven days.  Any exam handed in 14 days after due date there will be a 75% reduction of the final mid-term grade.

 

The final exam will be worth 25% of the final grade and will be a take-home exam consisting of six essay questions.  The student is expected to write 20-22 typed pages and will have the entire semester to complete the exam.

 

There will be NO make-up exams and late papers will not be accepted. 

 

Required Text(s):

 

Charles Kegley and Eugene Wittkoph; World Politics: Trend and Transformation

ISBN: 0-534-57442-4

 

Anderson, Liam and Gareth Stansfield. 2004. The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy, or Division?

ISBN: 1-4039-7144-7

 

Fawn, Rick and Raymond Hinnebusch. 2006. The Iraq War: Causes and Consequences.

ISBN: 1-58826-438-6

 

 

Method of Teaching:

 

Instruction in this course will follow a modified Socratic format.  A thorough exchange of ideas among students on various current events, weekly readings, or lecture topics is expected. 

 

Student Learning Objectives:

 

After successfully completing this course, students will be able to:

 

  • Explain and understand the major theoretical perspectives of international relations.
  • Explain and understand the main actors in international relations.
  • Explain the phenomena that govern the relationships between nation-states.
  • How international relations have changed and stayed the same over the centuries.
  • Understand the role Islamic Fundamentalism plays in international relations.
  • Understand the role terrorism plays in contemporary international relations.
  • Understand the role domestic politics play in international relations.
  • Analyze how the U.S. influences world politics.
  • The ability to compose a college level essay that expresses his/her views and/or ideas as they relate to either current events or a significant news story.
  • Realize and understand the significance of being politically and socially aware and active.

 

Additional Information:

 

Extra Credit: Under NO circumstances will extra credit assignments be given to any student attempting to raise his/her final grade.

 

Students with Disabilities: Northern Illinois University is constitutionally required to follow the Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 regarding the provision to provide reasonable accommodations for students with documented disabilities.  Therefore, if you have a disability that will negatively impact your performance in this course NIU MUST provide you with any needed instructional and/or examination accommodation.  If you need additional assistance please contact me ASAP.  Also, you will need to register with the Center for Access-Ability Resources (CAAR), the designated office on campus to provide services and administer exams with accommodations for students with disabilities. CAAR is located on the fourth floor of the University Health Services building (753-1303).

 

Plagiarism Policy: According to the NIU Undergraduate Catalogue “Students are guilty of plagiarism, intentional or not, if they copy material from books, magazines, or other sources without identifying and acknowledging them. Students guilty of, or assisting others in, either cheating or plagiarism on an assignment, quiz, or examination may receive a grade of F for the course involved and may be suspended or dismissed from the university.”  If you intentionally plagiarize on any paper I will give you an F on that paper.  

 

Religious Observance: If classes or assignments coincide and conflict with your religious observance, please let me know ASAP so that you can be accommodated.

 

Undergraduate Writing Awards: The Department of Political Science will recognize, on an annual basis, outstanding undergraduate papers written in conjunction with 300-400 level political science courses or directed studies. Authors do not have to be political science majors or have a particular class standing. Winners are expected to attend the Department’s spring graduation ceremony where they will receive a certificate and $50.00. Papers, which can be submitted by students or faculty, must be supplied in triplicate to a department secretary by February 28th. All copies should have two cover pages-one with the student’s name and one without the student’s name. Only papers written in the previous calendar year can be considered for the award.

 

Department of Political Science Web Site: Undergraduates are strongly encouraged to consult the Department of Political Science web site on a regular basis. This up-to-date, central source of information will assist students in contacting faculty and staff, reviewing course requirements and syllabi, exploring graduate study, researching career options, tracking department events, and accessing important details related to undergraduate programs and activities. To reach the site, go to http://polisci.niu.edu.

 

August 26: Introduction

 

Topic One: Theories of International Relations

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Two

 

  1. Define Realism, Liberalism, Neo-Realism, Neo-Liberalism, World Economic System (specifically the Marxism), Constructivism, and feminism.
  2. Answer the following four questions from each of the above IR theories:
    1. Who are the main actors in international politics?
    2.  Why do actors do what they do in international politics?
    3. What are the underlying factors that govern relationships in global politics?
    4. What accounts for conflict and cooperation in international politics?
  3. What theory does the George W. Bush presidency fall under?

 

August 28: Realism and Liberalism

September 2: Neo-Realism and Neo-Liberalism

September 4: Marxism, Feminism, and Constructivism

September 9: Review of IR theories

 

 

Topic Two: Introduction to and History of International Relations

September 11

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter One

 

 

  1. The global system is often considered to exist in a state on anarchy.  What does this mean?
  2. Explain the differences between individual level or analysis, state level of analysis, and the global level of analysis when dealing with international relations. 
  3. Define and explain the differences between the Global North and the Global South.
  4. What is a nonstate actor?
  5. What is a nation-state?
  6. How do nations and states differ?
  7. What is economic interdependence?
  8. Arguably, globalization is one of the most important process affecting relations between states and nonstate actors.  Explain if you think globalization is a positive or negative effect on the global community.
  9. Why is it important to begin the study of international relations with a review of world history?
  10. What are empires?
  11. How did the ancient Greek city-states differ from empires?
  12. What role did the Catholic Church play in Middle-ages Europe; specifically in the formation of the modern state?
  13. What significant role did the Thirty-Years War (1618-1648) play in the formation of the modern state?
  14. What did the Treat of Westphalia create?
  15. The Protestant Reformation, economic interdependence, military technology, and the Enlightenment each played a significant role in the birth of the modern state.  Explain what role each of the above phenomena played in the birth of the modern state.
  16. What impact did the American and French Revolutions have on international relations?

 

World Politics Trends and Transformations: Chapter Four

September 16

 

  1. What is a hegemon?
    1. Give an example of a military hegemon
    2. Give and example of a regional hegemon (one in Latin America or the Middle East)
    3. Give an example of a cultural hegemon
    4. Give an example of an economic hegemon
    5. Give an example of an ideological hegemon
  2.  What is hegemonic stability theory?
  3. What are enduring rivalries?
  4. What is nationalism?
  5. How is nationalism in Iraq fueling the domestic conflict we are currently seeing?
  6. What is Imperialism?
  7. What impact did WWI and WWII have on international relations?
  8. What is colonialism?
  9. What problems can be associated with colonialism?
  10. One of the most significant issues that have dominated international relations for the last 6o years has been the Arab-Israeli conflict.  What is the history of this conflict, and why does it still persist?
  11. What is imperialism?
  12. What was the Cold War?
  13. What is the domino theory?
  14. When looking at the Cold War define and explain the following phenomena: the Truman Doctrines, containment, extended deterrence, bipolarity, peaceful coexistence, Détente, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), Carter Doctrine, and the Reagan Doctrine
  1. What is a multi-polar world?

 

Topic Four: The State; its domestic institutions, and its foreign policy

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Three

September 18

 

1.      What is foreign policy?

2.      What factors go into shaping a state’s foreign policy?

3.      All states seek similar goals; their ability to realize them will vary according to their military capabilities.  Explain this argument

4.      Not all democracies are the same.  Explain the differences between constitutional democracy, majoritarian democracies, parliamentarian democracies, and majoritarian democracies

5.      Explain why majoritarian democracy is the most dangerous type

6.      What is the diversionary theory of war?

7.      Does diversionary theory of war adequately explain our involvement is Iraq?

8.      What is democratic peace theory?

9.      What is rational choice?

10.  What does Francis Fukuyama mean by “the end of history”?

11.  What is bureaucracy?

12.  What are some of the positive and negative consequences of bureaucratic policy making?

13.  The course of history is determined by the decisions of political elites.  What role do state’s leaders play in foreign policy decision making?

14.  How does the foreign decision making differ between democracies and autocracies? How do the bureaucracies differ?

15.  What is an audience-cost?

16.  Who pays greater audience costs, a democratically elected leader or an autocrat?

 

Topic Five: International institutions and non-state actors

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Five

September 23

 

  1. What are intergovernemntal organizations?
  2. What are nongovernemntal organizations?
  3. What are multinational corporations?
  4. What are internatioanl regimes?
  5. Explain the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, and the Internatioanl Monetary Fund
  6. What is the European Union?
  7. What is the Eupopean Court of Justics?
  8. What is a religious movement?
  9. History has shown that religion is one of the greatist issues a nation-sate must over come; why is this?
  10. Why is it imparative that religion and state remain separate?

 

Topic Six: The Developing World and Human Rights

September 25

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Six

 

  1. What is colonialism?
  2. What are the least developed of the less-developed countries (LLDCs)?
  3. What is decolonization?
  4. What is neocolonialism?
  5. Compare and contrast the first wave of imperialism and the second wave of imperialism
  6. What is self-determination?
  7. What is modernization?
  8. What is dependency theory?
  9. What is dualism?
  10. What are failed states?
  11. Based on your above definition, is Iraq a failed state?
  12. What are regional trade regimes?

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Seven

September 30

 

  1. What are human rights?
  2. Why are human rights important?
  3. What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; how has this declaration been violated by the United States?
  4. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”.  Explain this Jean Jacques Rousseau quote.  Is this assumption from 1762 still valid?
  5. We currently have significant numbers of refugees throughout the world; specifically in the Middle East.  Why is this? 
  6. Explain what a refugee is, a displaced person, ethnic cleansing, Xenophobia, and Genocide
  7. A global consensus has emerged about the need to improve the status of women if human rights development was to progress.  What is the gender empowerment index? What are gender inequalities?

 

Topic Seven: Globalization and International Political Economy

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Eight

October 2

 

  1. How does each of the IR theories view globalization – both positively and negatively?
  2. What is globalization?
  3. What is Americanization?
  4. Does globalization mean the end of the age of states?
  5. What is the globalization of finance?
  6. What is the globalization of trade?
  7. What is free trade?
  8. What are newly industrialized economies?
  9. Is globalization producing prosperity or poverty? Argue both sides of this

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformations: Chapter Nine

October 7

 

  1. What is international political economy?
  2. IPE tries to answer such questions as: how have changes in the international distribution of power among states affected the degree of openness in the international trading system?  Do the domestic political economies of some states allow them to compete more effectively in international markets? Is the relative poverty in the developing world better explained by indigenous conditions in individual countries or by some attribute on the international economic system? When can international economic ties among states be used for political leverage?
  3. What is the international monetary system?
  4. What is mercantilism?
  5. What was Bretton Woods?
  6. What are the six premises for the future global economy?

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Ten

October 9

 

  1. Population growth rates are not the same throughout the world.  Population is growing much more rapidly in the developing world.  Why is this problematic?
  2. How are the depleting fresh water supplies threatening international relations?
  3. What variables explain the developing world’s population growth?
  4. How do they stop it?
  5. What impact has HIV/AIDS had on international relations; specifically, on the developing world?
  6. What is OPEC?
  7. How have global patterns of oil consumption changed?
  8. What is fueling the high oil prices?
  9. How is climate change, elimination of the rain forests, acid rain, drought, desertification, and global warming affecting international relations?

 

Topic Eight: Conflict

October 14

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Eleven

 

  1. What is war?
  2. How does each of the IR theories view war?
  3. What is conflict?
  4. Explain 5 factors that lead to war
  5. What is game theory?
  6. What is Prisoner’s Dilemma?
  7. Democratic peace theory is arguably a cancer that has infected international relations; what is democratic peace?
  8. What is power transition theory?
  9. Explain the war weariness hypothesis
  10. What is a civil war?
  11. Civil wars stem from similar emerging conditions and center around several salient issues; what are they?

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Twelve

October 16

 

  1. What is national security?
  2. What is power?
  3. How does each IR theory view power?
  4. What elements make up a state’s power?
  5. What are opportunity costs?
  6. What is the bandwagon effect?
  7. How have military capabilities and the trends in the weapons trade changed over the last fifteen years?
  8. What is an arms race?
  9. What is mutual assured destruction?
  10. Is there any validity to argument that nuclear weapons stops international conflict?  Would Iran having nuclear weapons facilitate Middle East peace?
  11. What are unconventional weapons?

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Thirteen

October 21

 

  1. German philosopher Hegel once wrote that “We learn from history that men learn nothing from history”:  how does this quote help explain our current global security problems?  
  2. What is nuclear deterrence?
  3. What is terrorism?
  4. Argue from each of the IR theories how do be deter terrorism?
  5. What is conventional war?
  6. What is state-sponsored terrorism?
  7. What are the five major policy goals that are customarily pursed by states when they turn to economic sanction in lieu of other options, such as military force?

 

Midterm-Exam: October 23

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Fourteen

October 23

 

  1. Most states follow the realist road, seeing their viable choices are among three basic, time honored options; what are they?
  2. What are alliances?
  3. Do alliances facilitate peace or are they a deterrent to it?
  4. What balance of power theory?
  5. What conditions need to be met for a successful balance of power system?
  6. What is NATO?
  7. What are arms agreements?

 

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Fifteen

October 28

 

  1. What is international law?
  2. What is the World Court?
  3. International law has deficiencies; however, should this lead to the conclusion that international law irrelevant and/or useless.  What do you think?
  4. What are functionalism and neofunctionalism?

 

Topic Nine: Iraq

October 29-November 4

 

Anderson, Liam and Gareth Stansfield. 2004. The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy, or Division?

ISBN: 1-4039-7144-7

 

November 6-11

 

Fawn, Rick and Raymond Hinnebusch. 2006. The Iraq War: Causes and Consequences.

ISBN: 1-58826-438-6

 

Topic Ten: The future of World Politics

November 13-December 5

 

World Politics: Trends and Transformation: Chapter Sixteen

 

Daniel Byman: 2003. “Al-Qaeda as an Adversary: Do We Understand Our Enemy?” World Politics. Pages 139-63. (Project Muse)

 

Audrey Kurth Cronin: 2002. “Behind the Curve: Globalization and the International Terrorism” International Security. Pages 30-58. (Project Muse)

 

Stephen Walt. 2002. Beyond bin Laden: Reshaping U.S. Foreign Policy. International Security. Pages 56-78 (Project Muse)

 

Scott Atran. 2006. The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism. The Center for Strategic and International Studies. Pages 127-147. (Project Muse).


Final Exam

Political Science 265: Introduction to International Relations

Dustin Berna

 

 

 

 

Name: _________________________________

 

 

 

For each of the following five questions you are expected to write 3-4 pages explaining your answer.  Make sure you answer each question completely and accurately.  There will be NO plagiarism on this exam.  Your textbook can be used as a guide or a source; however, you are not allowed to copy it.  You are expected to write your responses in complete sentences, using proper grammar, and correct spelling.  Typing your exam is mandatory.  The Final Exam is worth 250 points or 25% of your final grade and each of the five exam questions are worth 50 points each. 

 

 

Completed exams will be accepted ONLY during finals week (December 8-12) and MUST be turned in BEFORE 5pm on Friday, December 12.

 

Any exam handed in before or after the above stated dates and times will get a 0 on the assignment – there will be NO EXCEPTIONS.

 


 

 

 

  1. Democratic peace theory argues that democracies do not fight democracies, and non-democracies are more prone to war than democracies.  Are these assumptions true? Explain the causes and consequences of war from the Realist, Neorealist, Liberal, Neoliberal, Constructivist, Marxist, and Feminist perspectives.

 

 

  1. It can be argued that the future of the global community looks grim: overpopulation, poverty, hunger, terrorism, religious extremism, fundamentalism, globalization, pollution, ethnic conflicts, war, weapons of mass destruction, egotistical world leaders, global warming, AIDS, population growth rates, and the increasing scarcity of fresh drinking water.  Explain the future of world politics; what do you think are the greatest threats to the global community?  What can be done?

 

 

  1. IPE tries to answer such questions as: how have changes in the international distribution of power among states affected the degree of openness in the international trading system?  Do the domestic political economies of some states allow them to compete more effectively in international markets? Is the relative poverty in the developing world better explained by indigenous conditions in individual countries or by some attribute on the international economic system? When can international economic ties among states be used for political leverage? Answer each of the above questions

 

 

  1. Is there any validity to argument that nuclear weapons stops international conflict?  Would Iran having nuclear weapons facilitate Middle East peace?  Argue both sides of this argument.

 

 

  1. As a result of the American invasion of Iraq, over 4,000 Americans have died, 50,000 Americans have been injured, upwards of 1,000,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed, and over 3,000,000 Iraqis have become displaced persons.  The Iraqi invasion has cost the American tax payers upwards of a trillion dollars.  Was the war worth the human and financial cost?  Should the United States be trying to spread democracy in the Middle East?  What are the problems associated with this aspect of President Bush’s foreign policy.  

 

  1. Based on everything you have learnt this semester explain if the Bush Doctrine and his cow-boy diplomacy and argue if it is a guarantee and/or facilitator to global peace or is it a threat to it. What is foreign policy? What factors go into shaping a state’s foreign policy?

 


Midterm Exam

Political Science 285: Introduction to International Relations 

Dustin Berna

October 23, 2008

 

 

 

Name _______________________________________

 

 

 

 

            Directions: For each of the following questions you are expected to write 5-6 paragraphs explaining your answer.  Make sure you answer each question completely and accurately.  There will be NO plagiarism on this exam.  Your textbook can be used as a guide or a source; however, you are not allowed to copy it.  You are expected to write your responses in complete sentences, using proper grammar, and correct spelling.  Typing your exam is mandatory.  This midterm exam is worth 250 points or 25% of your final grade.

 


 

  1.  Define Realism, Liberalism, Neo-Realism, Neo-Liberalism, World Economic System (specifically the Marxism), Constructivism, and feminism.  Answer the following four questions from each of the above IR theories:
    1. Who are the main actors in international politics?
    2.  Why do actors do what they do in international politics?
    3. What are the underlying factors that govern relationships in global politics?
    4. What accounts for conflict and cooperation in international politics?

 

  1. Some have argued that globalization is the most important process affecting relations between states and nonstate actors today.  It refers to the high degree of interdependence between people and other actors and the homogenization or economic, political, and cultural life across the globe.  Explain if you think globalization is a positive or negative effect on the global community.

 

  1. The United Nation, as an international institution has come to symbolize international relations and the possibility of world peace.  Explain the UN from the Realist, Neorealist, Liberal, Neoliberal, Constructivist, Marxist, and Feminist perspectives.  From each theoretical perspective answer the following questions: Can the international community survive with out the UN? What were the reasons that the UN was established? Is there any legitimacy to the argument that the UN is dominated by rich and powerful countries?

 

  1. The Protestant Reformation, economic interdependence, military technology, and the Enlightenment each played a significant role in the birth of the modern state.  Explain what role each of the above phenomena played in the birth of the modern state.

 

  1. Explain hegemonic stability theory; is their any validity to its assumptions? What is a hegemon? (Give an example of and explain each of the following: military hegemon, regional hegemon cultural hegemon, economic hegemon, and ideological hegemon)

 

  1. The Cold War dominated the study of international relations for more than fifty years.  Define and explain the following phenomena: the Truman Doctrines, containment, extended deterrence, bipolarity, peaceful coexistence, Détente, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), Carter Doctrine, and the Reagan Doctrine.

 

  1. The international environment influences domestic politics and domestic politics influence the international environment.  Explain how

 

  1. Not all democracies are the same.  Explain the differences between constitutional democracy, majoritarian democracies, parliamentarian democracies, and majoritarian democracies.  Explain why majoritarian democracy is the most dangerous type, especially when dealing with Iraq.

 

 

  1. In 1916, Lenin argued that military expansion abroad was produced by the “monopoly state of capitalism.”  He concluded that the only way to end imperialism was to abolish capitalism.  Justify his argument (include in your explanation:  modernization, dependency theory, imperialism, colonization, neocolonialism, and the least developed of the less-developed countries (LLDCs)). 

 

  1. The human rights situation in Israel and the Occupied Territories is of grave concern to any student of international relations.  No other phenomenon has had such a consistent negative effect on global politics than the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  Since the start of the current Intifada (September 2000) over 3,700 Palestinians have been killed by the Israeli army and settlers, and almost 1,000 Israelis have been killed by Palestinians.  Explain the following massacres from a neutral perspective and then you can state your own opinions on each or an overall assessment of the massacres: The Massacre at the Sabra and Shatila Camps (1982), THE IBRAHIMI MOSQUE MASSACRE (1994), AL-AQSA MOSQUE MASSACRE (1990), Khan Yunis Massacre (1956), KAFR QASEM MASSACRE (1956), The Massacre at Qibya (1953).  Furthermore, is there any truth to the argument that “the current wave of international terrorism, characterized by unpredictable and unprecedented threats from nonstate actors, not only is a reaction to globalization but is facilitates by it”?  What role has globalization played in the rise of terrorism?  Analyzing terrorism as something separate from globalization is misleading and potentially dangerous.  Why is this?