M, 6:10-8:40, FO 340 POLS 580T

Office Hours: T, 2-3; Th 1:30-2:30 Professor Danny Unger

Zulauf 305; 753 7042, dunger@niu.edu




Theories of International Relations


This course provides a survey of the literature and concepts in the international relations field. It aims to prepare students for more advanced study and research, as well as the qualifying examination (for doctoral students.) The course should help students participate in scholarly discourse on international relations with fellow professionals.


Required Texts and Course Readings

The following texts are required and are available at the bookstore. Most other required readings are available online. A few items may be available only at the library reserves desk. The suggestion to "skim" a reading means that it should take only a third the time it would take if read thoroughly.

-Peter Katzenstein, Robert Keohane, and Stephen Krasner, eds., Exploration and Contestation in the Study of World Politics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999)


-Take-home final exam, due in PS Department office by 4 p.m.,

December 6 30%

-Five sets of questions based on the week’s readings, each due

5 p.m. the Sunday evening before class (2% each: grades 0/1/2) 10

-Contributions to class discussions 20

-Class presentations of readings (two per student; 10% each) 20

(outline the reading(s); identify and contest key concepts)

-10-page research design, due at start of class 11/8 20




Schedule of Meetings and Assignments


August 23, Overview of the course and history of international relations theory

August 30, Development of the field; Levels of analysis, theory, and methods

Required: (175 pp.)

*-Miles Kahler, "Inventing International Relations: International Relations Theory after 1945," in Michael W. Doyle and G. John Ikenberry, eds., New Thinking in International Relations Theory (Boulder: Westview Press, 1997) pp.20-53

-Peter Katzenstein, Robert Keohane, and Stephen Krasner, "International Organization and the Study of World Politics," in Katzenstein et.al., eds., Exploration and Contestation in the Study of World Politics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999) 5-45

**-Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War (Columbia University Press, 1959) pp.1-15

**-Hedley Bull, "Society and Anarchy in International Relations," in Richard K. Betts, ed. Conflict After the Cold War, Arguments on Causes of War and Peace (Macmillan Publishing Co., 1994) pp.136-48

-David A. Lake and Robert Powell, "International Relations: A Strategic-Choice Approach," in Lake and Powell, eds. Strategic Choice and International Relations (Princeton University Press, 2001) pp.3-34

-Joseph M. Grieco, "Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation" (pp.51-55); Helen V. Milner, "A Critique of Anarchy" (pp.29-35) in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis, eds. International Politics. Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues, 3rd edition (Harper Collins, 1992)

*-Alexander Wendt, "Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics," in Friedrich Kratochwil and Edward Mansfield, International Organization: A Reader (Harper Collins, 1994) pp.77-94

-Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, "Introduction: Appraising Progress in International Relations Theory," in Elman and Elman, eds., Progress in International Relations Theory: Approaching the Field (MIT Press, 2003) pp.1-10, 19-20

-Andrea M. den Boer and Valerie M. Hudson, " ," International Security, 2002

-Andrew Bennett and Alexander George, "Integrating Comparative and Within-Case Analysis: Typological Theory," Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (MIT Press, 2004)

-Bruce Bueno de Mequita, Stephen Krasner and Robert Jervis, in International Studies Quarterly, June 1985

-Robert Jervis, "International History and International Politics: Why Are They Studied Differently," and Paul W. Schroeder, "International History: Why Historians Do It Differently than Political Scientists," in Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman eds. Bridges and Boundaries. Historians, Political Scientists, and the Study of International Relations (MIT Press, 2001) pp.385-416

Suggested readings:

-Martin Hollis and Steve Smith, Explaining and Understanding International Relations, pp.1-118

-Charles Tilly, Coercion, Capital and European States, AD 990-1992 (Blackwell, 1992), pp.1-37

-Alexander George, "Case Studies and Theory Development: the Method of Structured, Focused Comparison," 1979

-Gary King, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba, Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research (Princeton University Press), Chs.1, 4

-J. David Singer, "The Level of Analysis Problem in International Relations," in G. John Ikenberry, ed., American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays (1989), pp.67-78

-Alexander Wendt, "The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory," International Organization, 41, Summer 1987, pp.335-70

-Christine Sylvester, Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern Era (1994), pp.4-19

-Andrea M. den Boer and Valerie M. Hudson, Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia’s Surplus Male Population (MIT Press, 2004)

-James Fearon, "Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science," World Politics, 43:2, January 1991, pp.169-95

-John Vasquez and Marie Henehan, eds., The Scientific Study of Peace and War (Lexington) pp.xix-xxix, 343-70

-Peter J. Katzenstein and Nobuo Okawara, "Japan, Asian-Pacific Security, and the Case for Analytical Eclecticism," International Security, 26:3, Winter 2001/2002

-Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), Ch.5 [or, 5-64, 85-109, 243-59]

-David C. Kang, "Getting Asia Wrong: the Need for New Analytical Frameworks," International Security, 27:4, Spring 2003

-Lowell Dittmer, "East Asia in the ‘New Era’ in World Politics," World Politics, 55:1, October 2002

September 6, Holiday

September 13, Realism: classical, structural, offensive, and so on

Readings: (230 pp.)

*-Kenneth N. Waltz, Theory of International Politics (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley, 1979) pp.79-106

-John J. Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (W.W. Norton and Co., 2001) pp.14-22, 29-54

-(skim) Robert Jervis, "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," World Politics, January 1978, pp.167-214

-(skim) Paul Schroeder, "Historical Reality vs. Neorealist Theory," International Security, 19:1, Summer 1994, pp.108-48

-Thucydides, "The Melian Dialogue," in Richard K. Betts, Conflict After the Cold War, pp.66-71

*-Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace 4th edition (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967) pp.3-14, 25-29, 161-71

*-Edward Hallett Carr, "Realism and Idealism," in Richard K. Betts, Conflict After the Cold War, pp.72-87

-Robert Jervis, "Realism in the Study of World Politics," in Katzenstein et.al., eds. Exploration and Contestation

-B.C. Schmidt, "Anarchy, World Politics and the Birth of a Discipline: American International Relations, Pluralist Theory and the Myth of Interwar Idealism," International Relations, 16:1, 2002, pp.9-31

-Randall Schweller, "Neorealism’s Status Quo Bias: What Security Dilemma?" Security Studies, 3, pp.90-121

-Jeffry Legro and Andrew Moravcsik, "Is Anbody Still a Realist?" International Security, 24, February 1999

-(skim) Stephen M. Walt, The Origins of Alliances, (1987), pp.1-49, 262-86

-(skim) Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Princeton University Press, 1981) pp.9-49


-Thomas Hobbes, "On the Natural Condition of Mankind," Leviathan

-Barry Posen, The Sources of Military Doctrine ( ), pp.13-80

-Barry Buzan, Charles Jones, and Richard Little, The Logic of Anarchy (Columbia, 1993)

-Victoria Tin-bor Hui, "Toward a Dynamic Theory of International Politics: Insights from Comparing Ancient China and Early Modern Europe," International Organization, 58:1, January 2004

-Marcus Fischer, "Feudal Europe, 800-1300: Communal Discourse and Conflictual Practices," International Organization, 46, Spring 1992, pp.426-66

-Jim George, "Realist ‘Ethics’, International Relations, and Post-modernism: Thinking Beyond the Egoism-Anarchy Thematic," Millennium, 24:2, Summer 1995, pp.195-223

-Yosef Lapid, "The Third Debate: On the Prospects of International theory in a Post-Positivist Era," International Studies Quarterly, 33, 1989, pp.235-54

-Thucydides, "The Melian Dialogue," The Peloponnesian War, Book I, 1-89; Book II, 1-47; Book III 82-84; Book V, 84-115

-Laurie Johnson Bagby, "The Use and Abuse of Thucydides," International Organization, 48, Winter 1994, pp.131-53

-Peter J. Ahrensdorf, "Thucydides: Realistic Critique of Realism," Polity, 30:2, Winter 1997, pp.231-

-Daniel Harst, "Thucydides and Neo-Realism," International Studies Quarterly, 33, March 1989, pp.3-28

-Michael Doyle, "Thucydidean Realism," Review of International Studies, 16, July 1990, pp.223-238

-Steven Forde, "International Realism and the Science of Politics: Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Neorealism," International Studies Quarterly, 39:2, June 1995, pp.141-60

-Joao M. de Almeida, "Challenging Realism by Returning to History: The British Committee’s Contribution to IR 40 Years On," International Relations, 17:3, 2003

-Michael Desch, "Culture Clash: Assessing the Importance of Ideas in Security Studies," International Security, 23:1, Summer 1998, pp.141-70; "Correspondence: Isms and Schisms: Culturalism versus Realism in Security Studies," International Security, 24:1, Summer 1999, pp.156-80

-David A. Lake, "Anarchy, hierarchy, and the variety of international relations," International Organization, 50:1, Winter 1996, pp.1-34

-John Vasquez and Colin Elman, eds., Realism and the Balancing of Power ( ),

>chapters by Levy and Wohlforth, pp.128-53, 250-65

>pp.1-113, 266-304

-Michael Williams, "Hobbes and International Relations: A Reconsideration," International Organization, 50:2, Spring 1996, pp.213-36

-E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations, 2nd edition (New York: Harper and Row, 1946)

-John Vasquez, "The Realist Paradigm and Degenerative vs. Progressive Research Programs: An Appraisal of Neotraditional Research on Waltz’ Balancing Proposition," American Political Science Review, 91:4, December 1997, pp.899-912 (Responses, pp.913-35.)

-Richard Ned Lebow, "The Long Peace, the End of the Cold War, and the Failure of Realism," International Organization, 48:2, Spring 1994, pp.249-77

-Thomas Christensen and Jack Snyder, "Chain Gangs and Passed Bucks: Predicting Alliance Patterns in Multipolarity," International Organization, 44:2, Spring 1990

September 20, Liberalism and Neoliberalism

Readings: (115 pp.)

*-Immanuel Kant, "Perpetual Peace" (128-35) and Geoffrey Blainey, "Paradise is a Bazaar" (179-87) in Richard K. Betts, Conflict After the Cold War, pp.128-35, 179-87

*-Michael Doyle, "Liberalism and World Politics," American Political Science Review, 80, 1986, pp.1151-69

*-Robert Powell, "Absolute and Relative Gains in International Relations Theory," American Political ScienceReview, 85:4, 1991, pp.1303-20

-Robert Powell, "Anarchy in International Relations Theory: the Neorealist-Neoliberal Debate," International Organization, 48:2, Spring 1994, pp.313-44

-Robert Jervis, "Realism, Neoliberalism, and Cooperation: Understanding the Debate," International Security, Summer 1999

-(skim) Christopher Layne, "Kant or Cant: the Myth of Democratic Peace," in Lynn-Jones, Brown, and Miller, eds., The Perils of Anarchy (MIT Press, 1995) pp.287-331


-Mark Zacher and Richard Matthew, "Liberal International Theory: Common Threads, Divergent Strands," in Charles Kegley, ed., Controversies in International Relations

Theory (St. Martin’s Press, 1995), pp.107-50

-John M. Owen, "How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace," International Security, Fall 1994

September 27, Neoliberal Institutionalism: Democratic Peace, International Law, and International Institutions

Required: (110 pp.)

*-Stephen D. Krasner, "Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables," in Friedrich Kratochwil and Edward Mansfield, International Organization: A Reader (Harper Collins, 1994) pp.97-108

*-Friedrich Kratochwil and John Ruggie, "International Organization: A State of the Art on the Art of the State," in Friedrich Kratochwil and Edward Mansfield, International Organization: A Reader (Harper Collins, 1994) pp.4-19

-Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, James D. Morrow, Randolph M. Siverson, and Alastair Smith, "An Institutional Explanation of the Democratic Peace," American Political Science Review, 93, December 1999, pp.791-807

**-Stephen Toope and Martha Finnemore, "Alternatives to Legalization: Richer Views of Law and Politics," International Organization, 55, 2001, pp.743-58

**-Judith Goldstein et al., "Response to Finnemore and Toope," International Organization, 55, 2001, pp.759-60

-John Mearsheimer, "The False Promise of International Institutions," International Organization, 19:3, Winter 1994/1995. Responses, Summer 1995, pp.39-93


-Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society (Columbia University Press, 1977) pp.3-76

-James Lee Ray, Democracy and International Conflict ( ) pp.10-46, 86-87

-Michael Brown, Sean Lynn-Jones, and Steven Miller, eds., Debating the Democratic Peace (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999)

>Doyle pp.3-57, Russett pp.58-81, 337-50, Layne pp.157-201, Spiro pp.351-54, Oren pp.263-73

-Barbara Koremenos, Charles Lipson, and Duncan Snidal, "The Rational Design of International Institutions," International Organization, 55:4, Autumn 2001, pp.761-99

-Christopher Reur-Smit, The Politics of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2004) Chs.1-2

-Michael Byers and Georg Nolte, United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2003) Chs.1, 5

-Miriam Fendius Elman, ed., Paths to Peace (MIT Press, 1997) pp.1-58, 473-506

-Jack Snyder, From Voting to Violence, pp.15-43

-Kenneth A. Schultz, "Do Democratic Institutions Constrain or Inform: Contrasting Two Institutional Perspectives on Democracy and War," International Organization, 53, Spring 1999, pp.233-66

-Errol A. Henderson, "The Democratic Peace through the Eyes of Culture," International Studies Quarterly, 42, September 1998, pp.461-84

-Joanne Gowa, Ballots and Bullets (Princeton University Press, 1999)

-Bruce Russett and John Oneal, Triangulating Peace: Democracy, Independence and International Organizations (2001), Ch.2

-Judith Goldstein et al., "Introduction: Legalization and World Politics," International Organization, 54, 2000, pp.385-400

-Kenneth W. Abbott and Duncan Snidal, "Why States Act through Formal International Organizations," Journal of Conflict Resolution, 42, February, pp.3-32

-Kenneth Abbott et al., "The Concept of Legalization," International Organization, 54, 2000, pp.401-20

October 4, Constructivism


-Alexander Wendt, "Four sociologies of international politics" (1-44) and "Three Cultures of Anarchy" (246-312) in Social Theory of International Politics (Cambridge University Press, 1999) pp.1-44, 246-312

*-John Gerard Ruggie, "What Makes the World Hang Together? Neo-Utilitarianism and the Social Constructivist Challenge," in Katzenstein et al., eds., Exploration and Contestation, 215-45

*-Jeffrey Checkel, "The Constuctivist Turn in International Relations Theory," World Politics, January 1998, pp.324-48

*-Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, "International Norm Dynamics and Political Change," International Organization, 52:4, Autumn 1998, pp.887-917


-Jack L. Snyder, "Anarchy and Culture: Insights from the Anthropology of War," International Organization, 56:1, Winter 2002

-Ted Hopf, "The Promise of Constructivism in IR Theory," International Security, 23, Summer 1998, pp.171-200

-Martha Finnemore, "Norms, Culture and World Politics: Insights from Sociology’s Institutionalism," International Organization, 50, 1996, pp.325-47

-James Lee Ray, "The Abolition of Slavery and the End of International War," International Organization, 43, 1989, pp.405-39

-Thomas Risse, Stephen Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink, eds., The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change (Cambridge University Press, 1999) Ch.1

-Peter Katzenstein, ed., The Culture of National Security, pp.1-75, 453-97, 498-537

-Alexander Wendt, "Constructing International Politics," International Security, Summer 1995

-Buzan, Jones and Little, pp.102-113

-Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett, eds., Security Communities (Cambridge University Press, 1998) Chs.1-2

-Robert Keohane, "International Institutions: Two Approaches," in Kratochwil and Mansfield, International Organization: A Reader (Harper Collins, 1994) pp.44-60

-David Dessler, "What’s at Stake in the Agent-Structure Debate," in Kratochwil and Mansfield, pp.328-42

-Emmanuel Adler, "Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics," European Journal of International Relations, September 1977

-Jeffrey Legro, "Which Norms Matter? Revisiting the ‘Failure’ of Internationalism," International Organization, 51, 1997, pp.31-63

October 11, Rationalist Theories

Required: (115 pp.)

*-Robert Powell, "Bargaining Theory and International Conflict," American Review of Political Science, 5, 2002, pp.1-30

*-Stephen Walt, "Rigor or Rigor Mortis? Rational Choice and Security Studies," International Security, Spring 1999

>commentaries and responses in International Security, Fall 1999

*-Jon Elster, "Rational Choice History: A Case of Excessive Ambition," and Bates, et.al., "The Analytical Narratives Project," American Political Science Review, September 2000, pp.685-702

-Miles Kahler, "Rationality in International Relations," in Katzenstein et al., Exploration and Contestation, 279-301


-Robert Powell, In the Shadow of Power: States and Strategies in International Politics (Princeton University Press, 1999) pp.3-39

-Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, The War Trap (Yale University Press, 1981)

-James Fearon, "Rationalist Explanations for War," International Organization, 49:3, Summer 1995, pp.379-414

-James de Nardo, "Complexity, Formal Models, and Ideology in International Studies," in Michael Doyle and G. John Ikenberry, eds., New Thinking in International Relations Theory (Boulder: Westview Press, 1997)

-Stephen Van Evera, Causes of War: Power and the Roots of Conflict (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999)

-Eric Gartzke, "War is in the Error Term," International Organization 53:3, Summer 1999, pp.567-87

-Darren Filson and Suzanne Werner, "A Bargaining Model of War and Peace: Anticipating the Onset, Duration, and Outcome of War," American Journal of Political Science, 46, 2002, pp.819-38

-James Fearon, "Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation," International Organization, Spring 1998, pp.269-306

October 18, Networks; Feminist and Class-based Theories

Required: (120 pp.)

*-Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998) Ch.1

-Richard M. Price, "Transnational Civil Society and Advocacy in World Politics," World Politics, 55:4, July 2003

-Christine Sylvester, Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern Era, pp.68-99

-(skim) Carol Cohn, "Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals," Signs, 12:4, 1987, pp.687-718

*-J. Ann Tickner, "You Just Don’t Understand: Troubled Engagements Between Feminists and IR Theorists," International Studies Quarterly, 41, December, pp.611-32

*-Robert W. Cox, "Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory," in Kratochwil and Ruggie, eds. International Organization: A Reader, pp.343-63


-William A. Callahan, "Beyond Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism: Diasporic Chinese and Neo-Nationalism in China and Thailand," International Organization 57:3, Summer 2003

October 25, State-Level Theories

Required: (120 pp.)

*-Robert Putnam, "Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games," International Organization, 42:3, Summer 1988

-Peter Gourevitch, "The Second Image Reversed: International Sources of Domestic Politics," International Organization, Autumn 1978

*-Ronald Rogowski, "Institutions as Constraints on Strategic Choice," in Lake and Powell, eds., Strategic Choice, pp.115–136

*-Graham Allison, "Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis," American Political Science Review, 63, 1969, pp.689-718

-(skim) Alastair Iain Johnston, "Cultural Realism and Strategy in Maoist China," in Peter J. Katzenstein, ed., The Culture of National Security (1996) 216-68


-Jonathan Bender and Thomas Hammond, "Rethinking Allison’s Model," American Political Science Review, June 1992, pp.301-322

-Kenneth Schultz, "Domestic Opposition and Signaling in International Crises," American Political Science Review, 92, 1998, pp.829-44

-Jeffrey Frieden, "Actors and Preferences in International Relations," in Lake and Powell, eds. Strategic Choice, pp.39-76

-Peter Katzenstein and Nobuo Okawara, "Japan’s National Security: Structures, Norms, and Policies," International Security, 17:4, Spring 1993, pp.84-118

-Jack Snyder, Myths of Empire: Domestic Politics and International Ambition (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), Chs.1-3

-Etel Solingen, Regional Orders at Century’s Dawn: Global and Domestic Influences on Grand Strategy (Princeton University Press, 1998) Chs.1-3

-Ronald Rogowski, "Trade and the Variety of Democratic Institutions," International Organization, 41, 1987, pp.203-23

-David Karol, "Divided Government and U.S. Trade Policy," International Organization, 54, 2000, pp.825-44

-Alastair Johnston, "Thinking About Strategic Culture," International Security, Spring 1995

-Kenneth Schultz, Democracy and Coercive Diplomacy (2001), Chs.2-3

-James Fearon, "Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes," American Political Science Review, 88:3, 1994, pp.577-92

-Michael Blaker, "Probe, Push, and Panic: the Japanese Tactical Style in International Relations," in Robert A. Scalapino, ed., The Foreign Policy of Modern Japan, pp.55-101

-Lisa Martin, Democratic Commitments: Legislatures and International Cooperation (

-Helen Milner, Interests, Institutions, and Information ( ), Chs.1-4, 9

-Steven Miller, Sean Lynn-Jones, Stephen Van Evera, eds., Military Strategy and the Origins of the First World War (Princeton University Press, 1991)

>Preface, chapters by Snyder, Van Evera, Sagan, Lynn-Jones, Trachtenberg, Levy

-Michael Gordon, "Domestic Conflict and the Origins of World War I: the British and German Cases," Journal of Modern History, 1974, pp.191-226

November 1, Individual-Level Theories

Required: (135 pp.)

*-Andrew Bennett, Condemned to Repetition: The Rise, Fall, and Reprise of Soviet-Russian Military Interventionism, 1973-1996 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999) Ch.1

*-Caroline Kennedy-Pipe, "Whose Security? State-Building and the ‘Emancipation’ of Women in Central Asia," International Relations, 18:1, 2004

-J.M. Goldgeier and P.E. Tetlock, "Psychology and International Relations Theory," Annual Review of Political Science (Volume IV, 2001) pp.67-92

-Michael Young and Mark Schafer, "Is There Method in Our Madness? Ways of Assessing Cognition in International Relations," International Studies Quarterly, May 1998, pp.63-96

*-Robert Jervis, "Perceptions and the Level-of-Analysis Problem," Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Ch.1


-Jonathan Mercer, "Anarchy and Identity," International Organization, Spring 1995

-Judith Goldstein and Robert O. Keohane, "Ideas and Foreign Policy: An Analytic Framework," in Goldstein and Keohane, eds., Ideas and Foreign Policy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993)

-Deborah Welch Larson, Origins of Containment: A Psychological Explanation (Princeton University Press, 1985) Ch.1

-Jack Levy, "Learning and Foreign Policy: Sweeping a Conceptual Minefield," International Organization, 48:2, 1994, pp.279-312

-Yuen Foong Khong, Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and Vietnam Decisions of 1965 (Princeton University Press, 1992), Ch.2

-Neta Crawford, "The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships," International Security, Spring 2000, pp.116-56

-Philip Tetlock and Charles McGuire, "Cognitive Perspectives on Foreign Policy," in R. White, ed., Psychology and the Prevention of Nuclear War (New York University Press)

-Richard Ned Lebow, Between Peace and War (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981) Ch.6

Novermber 8, Deterrence/International Political Economy

Research designs due at start of class

Required: (110 pp.)

-Thomas Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict (Harvard University Press, 1960), pp.3-20

-Christopher Achen and Duncan Snidal, "Rational Deterrence Theory and Comparative Case Studies," World Politics, 41:2, January 1989, pp.143-69

*-Robert Jervis, "Rationalist Deterrence: Theory and Evidence," World Politics, 41:2, January 1989, pp.183-207

*-John Gerard Ruggie, "International Regimes, Transactions and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order," International Organization, 36, 1982, pp.379-415

*-Robert Gilpin, "Hegemonic War and International Change," in Betts, ed. Conflict After the Cold War, pp.96-109


-Richard Ned Lebow and Janice Gross Stein, "Deterrence: The Elusive Dependent Variable," World Politics, 42:3, 1990, pp.336-69

-Thomas F. Homer-Dixon, "On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict," Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller, eds. Global Dangers. Changing Dimensions of International Security (MIT Press, 1995) pp.43-83

-Paul Huth and Bruce Russett, "Testing Deterrence Theory: Rigor Makes a Difference," World Politics, 42:4, 1990, pp.466-501

-The White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States (Washington, D.C., 2002) http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html

-Simon J. Davies, "Community Versus Deterrence: Managing Security and Nuclear Proliferation in Latin America and South Asia," International Relations, 18:1, 2004

-Andrew MacIntyre, "Institutions and Investors: The Politics of Economic Crisis in Southeast Asia," International Organization, 55:1, Winter 2001, pp.81-122

November 15, U.S. Primacy

Required: (125 pp.)

*-Christopher Layne, "The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise," in Michael E. Brown, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller, eds. The Perils of Anarchy. Contemporary Realism and International Security (MIT Press, 1995) pp.130-76

*-William Wohlforth, "The Stability of a Unipolar World," International Security, 24:1, Summer 1999

*-Charles Krauthammer, "The Unipolar Moment Revisited," The National Interest, Winter 2002/2003

-Charles Krauthammer, "Democratic Realism: An American Foreign Policy for a Unipolar World," 2004 Irving Kristol Lecture, www.aei.org/news/newsID.19912

-Stephen D. Brooks and William Wohlforth, "American Primacy in Perspective," Foreign Affairs, 81:4, 2002, pp.20-33

-P.Q. Hirst, "Another Century of Conflict? War and the International System in the 21st Century," International Relations, 16:3, 2002, pp.327-42


-Kenneth Waltz, "The Emerging Structure of International Politics," International Security, 18:2, Fall 1993, pp.44-79

-Michael D. Wallace, "Armaments and Escalation: Two Competing Hypotheses," in John A. Vasquez and Marie T. Henehan, eds., The Scientific Study of Peace and War (New York: Lexington Books, 1992)

-Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay, America Unbound (Brookings Institution Press, )

-Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire (Metropolitan Books)

-Emmanuel Todd, After the Empire (Columbia University Press)

-Robert Kagan, "Power and Weakness," Policy Review, 113, June/July 2002


November 22, U.S. Primacy: implications

Required: (120 pp.)

*-Tony Smith, "In Defense of Intervention," Foreign Affairs, 73, 1994, pp.34-46

-Francis Fukuyama, "Nation-Building 101," The Atlantic Monthly, January 20, 2004

-International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect (Ottawa: International Development Research Corporation, 2001)

*-Ian Holliday, "Ethics of Intervention: Just War Theory and the Challenge of the 21st Century," International Relations, 17:2, 2003

*-Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism," International Security, 27:3, Winter 2002/2003

-Amitav Acharya, "Will Asia’s Past Be Its Future?" International Security 28:3, Winter 2003/2004

-David C. Kang, "Hierarchy, Balancing, and Empirical Puzzles in Asian International Relations," International Security, 28:3, Winter 2003/2004


-Barbara Donagan, "Atrocity, War Crime, and Treason in the English Civil War," American Historical Review, October 1994

-John Lewis Gaddis, Surprise, Security and the American Experience (Harvard University Press, 2004)

-Walter Russell Mead, Power, Terror, Peace and War; America’s Great Strategy in a World at Risk (Alfred A. Knopf, Council on Foreign Relations, 2004)

November 29, Rethinking Sovereignty

Required: (130 pp.)

-Hendrik Spruyt, The Sovereign State and Its Competitors (Princeton University Press, 1994) pp.183-94

*-Robert H. Jackson, Quasi-states: sovereignty, international relations and the Third World (Cambridge University Press, 1990) 13-31

*-Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order (Simon and Schuster, 1996) pp.19-39

-(skim) Stephen D. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton University Press, 1999) pp.3-42, 184-219

-Mark Zacher, "The Territorial Integrity Norm," International Organization, 55:2, Spring 2001, pp.215-50

*-Daniel Philpott, "The Challenge of September 11 to Secularism in International Relations," World Politics, 55:1, October 2002


-James N. Rosenau, "The Relocation of Authority in a Shrinking World," Comparative Politics, April 1992, pp.253-72

-Dani Rodrik, Has Globalization Gone Too Far? (Washington, D.C.: Institute of International Economics, 1997)

-Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), pp.27-47, 178-99

-Stephen Krasner, "Westphalia and All That," in Goldstein and Keohane, eds., Ideas and Foreign Policy, pp.235-64

-Christian Reus-Smit, "The Constitutional Structure of International Society and the Nature of Fundamental Institutions," International Organization, 51, 1997, pp.555-89

-Audrey Kurth Cronin, "Rethinking Sovereignty in the Age of Terror," Survival, 44:2, Summer 2002, pp.119-39

December 6, Take-home final due in PS Department office by 4 p.m.