Professor Danny Unger Political Science 560

Office: 305 Zulauf Founders 340

Office Hours: T 2-3, Th 1:30-2:30 Th 3:30-6:10



Comparative Political Analysis


This seminar aims to help students understand the roots—intellectual, social and historical--of comparative political analysis. It also tries to deepen familiarity with comparative political scholarship and to foster skills in evaluating scholarship. Ultimately, the seminar aims to enable students to contribute to comparative political scholarship. These goals require attention to the goals scholars pursue in their work, their epistemological assumptions, and the concepts they employ.

The seminar has three main parts. In the first part, we examine the historical development of comparative political analysis, and focus on broad theories and methodological issues. The second part is devoted to a review of different approaches to comparative political analysis—structural, cultural, rationalist, and institutional. The third part of the course looks into several issues of general substantive interest to scholars of comparative politics—democracy, that state, state-society relations, and political economy.

Reading assignments aim to ensure that students are prepared to contribute to seminar discussions. The moderate required reading load for the seminar (an average of 130 pages per week,) is designed to make it possible for all students to have done the readings and to be able to contribute to discussions.

Note: Students taking the candidacy exam in comparative politics will be responsible for all the readings listed on this syllabus under the headings supplementary and required. Please also note the questions listed at the end of this syllabus. These questions are representative of the kinds of questions students will be expected to be able to answer when taking the candidacy exam.

Required texts:

-Lichbach, Mark Irving and Alan S. Zuckerman, Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

-B. Guy Peters, Comparative Politics: Theory and Methods (New York University Press, 1998)

-Miguel Angel Centeno and Fernando Lopez-Alves, eds. The Other Mirror. Grand Theory Through the Lens of Latin America (Princeton University Press, 2001)

The bulk of readings for the course will be available online, although a few readings may only be available on reserve at the library.


Two presentations per student and contributions to class discussion (*) 20%

Three 7-page papers, 8 points each 24

(one each for the readings 9/2-9/16; 9/23-10/14; 10/21-11/11)

-papers should assess and compare the analytical approaches presented

by the week’s assigned readings.

-unless explicitly approved in a meeting in my office, papers should

address all the required readings assigned for that week.

-papers are due at the start of the class during which the readings

will be discussed.

-papers may not cover the readings students present in class

Take-home exam due at start of class December 2nd 30

8 pp. research proposal (first draft due start of class 10/21) 20

-final draft due 11/11 6




Schedule of Meetings and Assignments

August 26th, Overview of the field and the course

September 2nd, Roots of Comparative Political Analysis and Development of the Field

Required: (110 pp.)

*-Ronald H. Chilcote, Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered, 2nd edition (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994) pp.77-120

-Reinhard Bendix, "Inequality and Social Structure: A Comparison of Marx and Weber," American Sociological Review, vol. 64, April 1974, pp.149-61

-David Easton, "An Approach to the Analysis of Political Systems," World Politics, 9:3, April 1957, pp.383-400

*-Huntington, Samuel P. "The Change to Change: Modernization, Development, and Politics," Comparative Politics. April 1971: 283-322.

-Lichback and Zuckerman, "Research Traditions and Theory in Comparative Politics: An Introduction," in Lichbach and Zuckerman, Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, pp.3-10


-Lipset, Seymour Martin. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. New York: Doubleday, 1963: 27-63.

-Tony Smith, "The Underdevelopment of Dependency Literature," World Politics, January 1979

-Talcott Parsons, "Systems Analysis: Social Systems," International Encylopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol.15, 1968


-Anthony Giddens, Capitalism and Modern Social Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), Preface, Introduction, pp.18-45, 65-81, 95-104, 119-32, 154-68, 185-204

-Ronald H. Chilcote, Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered, 2nd edition (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994) pp.55-76

-Lane, Ruth. The Art of Comparative Politics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997: vii-ix, 1-50, 61-71, 77-122, 130-132.

September 9, Theory in Comparative Political Analysis

Required: (110 pp.)

*-Zuckerman, Alan S. " Reforming Explanatory Standards and Advancing Theory in Comparative Politics," in Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds. Comparative Politics, pp.277-310

*-Geddes, Barbara. "Paradigms and Sand Castles in the Comparative Politics of Developing Areas," Political Science: Looking to the Future, Volume Two: Comparative Politics, Policy, and International Relations. William Crotty, ed., Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1991: 45-75.

*-Atul Kohli et al., "The Role of Theory in Comparative Politics," World Politics, 48:1, 1995

-Danny Unger, "The Heuristic Value of the Developmental State Model as Applied to Southeast Asia," in David Arase, ed., The Challenge of Change, East Asia in the New Millennium (Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 2003) 67-90

-Miguel Angel Centeno and Fernando Lopez-Alves, "Introduction," in Miguel Angel Centeno and Fernando Lopez-Alves, eds. The Other Mirror. Grand Theory Through the Lens of Latin America (Princeton University Press, 2001) pp.3-19


-Kenneth A. Shepsle and Mark S. Bonchek, Analyzing Politics: Rationality, Behavior, and Institutions (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1997,) pp.13-35

-Clifford Geertz, "Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture," and "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight," in Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973) pp.3-30, 412-53


-James Farr, "Remembering the Revolution: Behavioralism in American Political Science," in Farr et al., eds., Political Science in History ( )

September 16, Comparative Methods

Required: (175 pp.)

*-Arend Lijphart, "The Comparable-Cases Strategy in Comparative Research," in Louis J. Cantori and Andrew H. Ziegler, Jr., eds., Comparative Politics in the Post-Behavioral Era (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1988), pp.54-70

-Peters, Guy B. Comparative Politics: Theory and Methods. New York: New York University Press, 1998: 1-79, 109-155

*-Andrew Bennett and Alexander George, "Integrating Comparative and Within-Case Analysis: Typological Theory," Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (MIT Press, 2004)


-Alexander George, "Case studies and their development: the method of structured, focused comparison," in Gordon Lauren, ed., Diplomacy: New Approaches to History

-Bates, Robert et. al. Analytic Narratives. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998: 3-22, 231-238.

-Arend Lijphart, "Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method," American Political Science Review, Vol.75, September 1971, pp.682-93


-David Collier, "The Comparative Method," in Finifter, ed., Political Science: State of the Discipline, II, pp.105-19

-David Ragin, The Comparative Method (1987), Chs.1-5

-King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba. Designing Social Inquiry, Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton University Press, 1994: 7-33.

September 23, Structuring Political Systems

Required: (175 pp.)

*- James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, "Comparative Historical Analysis: Achievements and Agendas," in Mahoney and Rueschemeyer, eds. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 2003) pp.3-38

-McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. "Toward an Integrated Perspective on Social Movements and Revolution," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds.: 142-173.

-Katznelson, Ira. "Structure and Configuration in Comparative Politics," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds.: 81-112.

*-M. Steven Fish, "Islam and Authoritarianism," World Politics, 55:1, October 2002, pp.4-37

*-Theda Skocpol, States and Social Revolutions (Cambridge University Press, 1979) Ch.1 (pp.3-43)

-J. Samuel Valenzuela, "Class Relations and Democracy: A Reassessment of Barrington Moore’s Model," in Centento and Lopez-Alves, The Other Mirror, pp.240-86


-Chalmers Johnson, Revolutionary Change, 2nd edition (Stanford University Press, 1982) pp.1-15

-Jack A. Goldstone, "Comparative Historical Analysis and Knowledge Accumulation in the Study of Revolutions," in James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds. Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 2003) pp.41-90

-Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, Chs.7-9


-Katzenstein, Peter. "Small Nations in a Open International Economy: The Converging Balance of State and Society in Switzerland and Austria," Bringing the States Back In. Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985: 227-251.

-Samuel Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, Ch.1

September 30, Political Culture

Required: (140 pp.)

*-Ruth Lane, "Political Culture: Residual Category or General Theory?" Comparative Political

Studies, 25:2, 1992, pp.362-87

-Ross, Marc Howard. "Culture and Identity in Comparative Political Analysis." Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman eds.: 42-80.

-Edward Banfield, The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (The Free Press, 1958) pp.17-34

-Ronald Inglehart, "The Renaissance of Political Culture," American Political Science Review, Vol.82, December 1988, pp.123-30

*-Lawrence Scaff, "Fleeing the Iron Cage: Politics and Culture in the Thought of Max Weber," American Political Science Review, vol.81, September 1987, pp.737-57

-Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991) Ch.1 (pp.1-7)

-Claudio Lomnitz, "Benedict Anderson’s Theory of Nationalism from the Vantage Point of Spanish America," The Other Mirror, pp.329-59

-Aaron Wildavsky, "Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Culture Theory of Preference Formation," American Political Science Review, 81, 1987, pp.3-21


-Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985: xv-xxii, 1-27, 184-240.

-Lucian Pye and Sidney Verba, Political Culture and Political Development, pp.pp.3-26, 512-61

-Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy, Toward Consolidation (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999) pp.161-217


-Anthony W. Marx, Making Race and Nation (Cambridge University Press, 1998) pp.1-25

-Peter van der Veer, Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India ( )

-Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture, pp.1-44, 136-67, 337-74

-Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic ( )

-James C. Scott, "Patron-Client Southeast Asia," American Political Science Review, pp.91-113

-Scott, James. The Moral Economy of the Peasant. Yale, 1976

October 7, Rationality in Politics

Required: (95 pp.)

*-Donald Green and Ian Shapiro, The Pathologies of Rational Choice: A Critique of Applications in Political Science (Yale University Press, 1994) pp.1-32

-Levi, Margaret. "A Model, a Method, and a Map: Rational Choice in Comparative and Historical Analysis," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds.: 19-41.

-Anthony Downs, "An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy," in Political Theory and Public Choice (Edward Elgar, 1998) pp.1-16

*-Barry Weingast, "The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law," American Political Science Review, 91, 1997, pp.245-63

*-Tsebelis, George. Nested Games: Rational Choice in Comparative Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990: 1-17


-Tsebelis, George. Nested Games: Rational Choice in Comparative Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990: 92-158.

-Levi, Margaret. "The Economic Turn in Comparative Politics," Comparative Political Studies. 33, No. 6/7, 2000: 822-844.


-Popkin, Samuel L. The Rational Peasant: the Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam. (University of California Press, 1979.)

-Lalman, David, Joe Oppenheimer, and Piotr Sistak. "Formal Rational Choice Theory: A Cumulative Science of Politics," Political Science: The State of the Discipline II. Ada W. Finifter, ed., Washington: American Political Science Association, 1993: 77-104.

October 14, The New Institutionalism

Required: (110 pp.)

*-Hall, Peter A. and Rosemary C.R. Taylor, 1998. "Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms," Institutions and Social Order. Karol Soltan, Eric M. Uslaner, and Virginia Haufler, eds.: 15-43.

-Immergut, Ellen M. "The Theoretical Core of the New Institutionalism," Politics and Society. 26:1, March 1988: 5-34.

*-Remmer, Karen. "Theoretical Decay and Theory Development: the Resurgence of Institutional Analysis," World Politics, 50, October 1997.

-Thomas A. Koelble, "The New Institutionalism in Political Science," Comparative Politics, 27, 1995, pp.231-43

*-Douglas North and Barry Weingast, "Constitutions and Commitment," in Alston et al., eds. Empirical Studies in Institutional Change (Cambridge University Press, 1996) 134-65


-Thelan, Kathleen and Sven Steinmo. "Historical institutionalism in comparative politics," Structuring Politics, Historical institutionalism in comparative analysis. Stienmo, Thelen, and Frank Longstreth, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992: 1-32.

-Andrew MacIntyre, "Institutions and Investors: The Politics of the Asian Economic Crisis in Southeast Asia," International Organization, 55:1, 2002, pp.81-122


-Barbara Geddes, Politician’s Dilemma (

-Mary Douglas, How Institutions Think (Syracuse University Press, 1986)

-Rein Taagepera and Mathew Soberg Shugart, Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems (Yale University Press, 1989) pp.1-6, 9-57

-Gary W. Cox, Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems (Cambridge University Press, 1997) pp.3-12, 37-68

-Kato, Junko. " Review Article: Instutions and Rationality in Politics--Three Varieties of Neo-Institutionalists," British Journal of Political Science. 26:4, October 1996: 553-582.

October 21, Political Economy

First draft of research proposal due at start of class

Required: (135 pp.)

*-Robert Bates, Markets and States in Tropical Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981)

*-Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford University Press, 1982) pp.3-34

-Hall, Peter A. "The Role of Interests, Institutions, and Ideas in the Comparative Political Economy of the Industrialized Nations," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds.: 174-207.

-Robert Bates, Prosperity and Violence, The Political Economy of Development (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2001), pp.50-83

-Jeremy Adelman, "Institutions, Property, and Economic Development in Latin America," The Other Mirror, pp.27-54

-Paul Gootenberg, "Hijos of Dr. Gerschenkron: ‘Latecomer’ Conceptions in Latin American History," in Centeno and Lopez-Alves, The Other Mirror, pp.55-80

-Steven Topik, "Karl Polanyi and the Creation of the ‘Market Society," in Miguel Angel Centeno and Fernando Lopez-Alves, eds. The Other Mirror, Grand Theory Through the Lens of Latin America (Princeton University Press, 2001) 81-104


-Charles Lindblom, Politics and Markets, Chs.1-3

-Ronald Rogowski, Commerce and Coalitions,

-Gerschenkron, Alexander. " Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective," Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Gerschenkron ed., 1962.

-Shafer, D. Michael. Winners and Losers, How Sectors Shape the Developmental Prospects of States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994: 6-15.


-Packenham, Robert A. The Dependency Movement: Scholarship and Politics in Development Studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992: 82-109.

-Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations, Introduction (Chapter One?---summary of The Logic)

-Deyo, Frederick C. The New Asian Industrialism. Deyo, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

-Peter Gourevitch, Politics in Hard Times (Cornell University Press, ) Chs.1-2, 6

October 28, Democracy

Required: (175 pp.)

*-Philippe C. Schmitter, "Parties are Not What They Once Were," in Larry Diamond and Richard Gunther, eds. Political Parties and Democracy (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001) pp.67-89

-Scott Mainwaring, "Party Systems in the Third Wave," Journal of Democracy (July 1998) pp.67-81

*-Haggard, Stephan and Robert Kaufmann. " The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions," Comparative Politics. 29, 1997: 263-285.

-Philippe Schmitter and Terry Lynn Karl, "What Democracy Is…And Is Not," Journal of Democracy, 2:3, Summer 1991, 75-88

*-Seymour Martin Lipset, "The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited," American Sociological Review, 58, February 1994, pp.1-22

-Fareed Zakaria, "The Rise of Illiberal Democracy," Foreign Affairs, November 1997, pp.22-43

-Ronald Inglehart, Modernization and Postmodernization (Princeton University Press, 1997) chapter six ("Economic Development, Political Culture, and Democracy") 160-215

-Michael McFaul, "The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Non-cooperative Transitions in the Post-communist World," World Politics, 54:2, January 2002


-Remmer, Karen. "New Theoretical Perspectives on Democratization," Comparative Politics. October 1995: 103-122

-Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave, chapter one


-Dahl, Robert. Polyarchy. chapter one? Three?

-Diamond, Larry. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1999: xi-xvi, 1-23, 64-116

-Ruth Berins Collier, Paths Toward Democracy, The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999)

-Lijphart, Arend. Democracy in Plural Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

-Przeworski, Adam. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992: ix-xii, 1-99.

-Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne Huber Stephens, and John D. Stephens. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992: 1-11, 40-225, 269-302.

November 4, the State

Required: (145 pp.)

*-Theda Skocpol, "Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis is Current Research," in Evans, Peter B., Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol, eds. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp.3-43

*-Natasha Hamilton-Hart, Asian States, Asian Bankers. Central Banking in Southeast Asia (Cornell University Press, 2002) pp.1-27

-Fernando Lopez-Alves, "The Transatlantic Bridge: Mirrors, Charles Tilly, and State Formation in the River Plate," The Other Mirror, pp.153-76

-Jorge I. Dominguez, "Samuel Huntington and the Latin American State," in Centeno and Lopez-Alves, eds. The Other Mirror, pp.219-39

*-Evans, Peter. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton, 1995.

-Midgal, Joel S. "Studying the State," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman, eds.: 208-235.


-Ronald H. Chilcote, Comparative Inquiry in Politics and Political Economy (Westview Press, 2000) pp.57-81

-Philip Selznick, The Organizational Weapon, pp.17-48

-Gianfranco Poggi, The Development of the Modern State (Stanford University Press, 1978)

-J.P. Nettl, "The State as a Conceptual Variable," in Cantori and Ziegler, eds., pp.303-32

November 11, State-Society Relations

Final research proposal due at start of class

Required: (105 pp.)

-Putnam, Robert. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993: xiii-xv, 3-16

*-Anirudh Krishna, "Enhancing Political Participation in Democracies: What is the Role of Social Capital?" Comparative Politics, 35:1, 2002, pp.437-60

*-Stepan, Alfred. "State Power and the Strength of Civil Society in the Southern Cone of Latin America," Evans et al. Bringing the State Back In, pp.317-343.

*-Michael Walzer, "Intellectuals, Social Classes, and Revolutions," in Skocpol, ed., Democracy, Revolution, pp.127-42

-Pradeep K. Chhibber, Democracy Without Associations: Tranformation of the Political System and Social Cleavages in India (University of Michigan Press, 2001) pp.1-23

-Atul Kohli, Democracy and Discontent, India’s Growing Crisis of Governability (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp.3-21


-Diamond, Larry. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1999, pp.218-60

-Katzenstein, Peter. Between Power and Plenty. introduction and conclusion.

-Margaret Levy, "Appendix: Bringing People Back Into the State," in Of Rule and Revenue

-Joel Migdal, Strong States and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World

November 18, Isolated islands of research, or a synthesis?

Required: (45 pp.)

-Lichbach, Mark I. "Social Theory and Comparative Politics," Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach and Zuckerman: 239-276.

-B. Guy Peters, Comparative Politics, pp.212-26

November 25, no class

December 2, final exam due in PS Department office by 4 p.m.



Thematic Questions:

1. What research methodologies and substantive concerns constitute the core of the field of comparative politics today? Rather than simply list contenders, describe the development and contributions, as well as strengths and weaknesses, of various methodological approaches and analyses that address common substantive concerns. In short, explain where the field of comparative politics is today and how it got there.

2. Political cultural approaches remind us that even rational actors are "swimming in a thick soup of history." Beyond that general reminder, do political cultural approaches offer useful analytical tools for understanding or explaining issues in comparative politics? If so, offer some examples of the approaches’ utility as well as their limits. Be sure to refer to actors’ identities, interests, and the contexts in which they act.

3. In the 1950s, Roy Macridis and many other comparativists bemoaned the lack of scientific method in their field. Arguing the need for approaches that would allow for the cumulation of knowledge, they helped usher in the behavioralist era in the comparative politics field. In the 1990s, Barbara Geddes and many other comparativists bemoaned the lack of scientific method in their field. Arguing the need for approaches that would allow for the cumulation of knowledge, they championed the application of rational choice methods in the comparative politics field. How successful have these two different groups of comparativists been in shaping research agendas in the comparative politics field? To what degree have behavioralist or rational choice approaches been successful in cumulating knowledge about politics? What have been some of the principal contributions of the two approaches? What are some of the general strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches to understanding politics? Discuss in some detail the contributions of at least two scholars representative of each of these approaches.

4. What today constitutes the core of the comparative politics field? Is there a core? Be sure to address both methodological and substantive concerns.

5. Address the strengths and weaknesses of the work of four of the following: Robert Putnam, Seymour Martin Lipset, Barrington Moore, Samuel Huntington, Theda Skocpol. To what degree did these scholars shape the research agendas of the comparative politics field?

6.What research methodologies and substantive concerns constitute the core of the field of comparative politics? Rather than simply list contenders, describe their development and contributions, strengths and weaknesses. In short, explain where we are today and how we got here.

7. Describe the comparative case method and its potential strengths and limitations. When is the method least or most useful? Discuss specific readings assigned this semester and indicate the ways in which they fit within typologies of case methods.

8. Assess the relative utility of cultural, rational, and structural approaches in addressing theoretical puzzles that arise in five broad areas of comparative political research: modernization; state-society relations; social movements and citizen compliance; political economy; and democratization. Which analytical tools best address the central questions posed by researchers in each of these substantive areas? For each of these five literatures, identify the central questions addressed by scholars working within the literature and the insights (potential or actual) afforded by the three broad research approaches (structural, cultural, rational.) For each literature, try to suggest areas for future research, indicating a research program with hypotheses to be tested and the types of data needed to assess competing hypotheses.

9. During the 1960s, the political development approach dominated comparative politics, but this paradigm came under increasing attack as the decade progressed, and many scholars turned to other approaches. Critically evaluate the early literature on modernization and political development. Was rejection of this approach justified? Or was the baby thrown out with the bath water?

10. Two of the leading books in the mushrooming literature on democratization are Capitalist Development and Democracy by Dietrich Rueschemeyer, Evelyne Huber Stephens, and John D. Stephens, and Adam Przeworski’s Democracy and the Market. Compare and evaluate these works, paying particular attention to their respective methodological approaches, substantive findings, and general conclusions.