Professor Danny Unger                                                               Political Science 480

Office: 305 Zulauf                                                                       DuSable 246

Office Hours: T 1:45-2:45, Th 4:30-5:30                                     Th  6:30-9:10  




International Law and Organization



This course surveys the fields of international law and international governance, focusing on the ways in which law and organizations shape international relations as well as domestic political issues.  We will begin by examining different perspectives on the roles of international law and organizations in international politics.  We will study the major principles and concepts of international law, looking at international treaties and court decisions as well as custom and actual state practice.  We will then look into the history and contemporary activity of various international organizations.  We will try to understand how international organizations are created and what purposes they are designed to fulfill, looking at how they actually operate and change over time.  To understand the impact on international relations of both international law and international organizations, we will explore issues such as security and peacekeeping, trade and other economic relations, environmental policy, economic and social development issues, and international justice concerns. 



Required texts


-Charlotte Ku and Paul F. Diehl, eds., International Law, Classic and Contemporary Readings, 2nd edition (Lynne Rienner, 2003)

-Kelly-Kate S. Pease, International Organizations, Perspectives on Governance in the Twenty-First Century, 2nd edition (Prentice Hall, 2003)


Assigned readings not found in these textbooks will be on reserve at Founders Library.


Course requirements and weightings


Class attendance and participation                                                                     10 points

In-class briefs (topics specified below)                                                  10 points

Seven-page paper on an international organization (guidelines below)     20 points         

Midterm exam                                                                                                  20 points

Final exam                                                                                                        40 points


General guidance on papers The papers on international organizations will be graded on the basis of the clarity and quality of their arguments, organization, presentation of relevant facts, and quality of research.  All papers must include full and complete citations, including citations of required course readings and lectures.  Any paper submitted with less than perfect citations will be returned for rewriting with a ten point (out of 100) penalty.  Be sure you understand how to cite sources.  Papers also should use standard margins and fonts and have page numbers. 



Undergraduate Writing Awards

The Department of Political Science will recognize, on an annual basis, outstanding undergraduate papers written in conjunction with 300-400 level political science courses or directed studies. Authors do not have to be political science majors or have a particular class standing. Winners are expected to attend the Department's spring graduation ceremony where they will receive a certificate and $50.00. Papers, which can be submitted by students or faculty, must be supplied in triplicate to a department secretary by February 28. All copies should have two cover pages - one with the student's name and one without the student's name. Only papers written in the previous calendar year can be considered for the award. However, papers completed in the current spring semester are eligible for the following year's competition even if the student has graduated.

Statement Concerning Students with Disabilities

Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, NIU is committed to making reasonable accommodations for persons with documented disabilities. Those students with disabilities that may have some impact on their coursework and for which they may require accommodations should notify the Center for Access-Ability Resources (CAAR) on the fourth floor of the Health Services Building. CAAR will assist students in making appropriate accommodations with course instructors. It is important that CAAR and instructors be informed of any disability-related needs during the first two weeks of the semester.

Department of Political Science Web Site

Undergraduates are strongly encouraged to consult the Department of Political Science web site on a regular basis. This up-to-date, central source of information will assist students in contacting faculty and staff, reviewing course requirements and syllabi, exploring graduate study, researching career options, tracking department events, and accessing important details related to undergraduate programs and activities. To reach the site, go to 





Schedule of lectures, readings, and films


Assigned readings should be done prior to the class meetings for which they are assigned.


August 28, Introduction to course concepts and scheduling of presentations


September 4, Historical development of international law and international organizations



Charlotte Ku and Paul F. Diehl, “International Law as Operating and Normative Systems: An Overview,” in Ku and Diehl, eds., International Law, Classic and Contemporary Readings (KD), pp.1-19

Kelly-Kate S. Pease, “Introduction,” “International Organizations: Nuts and Bolts,” and “Mainstream Approaches,” International Organizations, Perspectives on Governance in the Twenty-First Century (Prentice Hall, 2003), pp.1-69


September 11, Sources of International Law



Anthony Clark Arend, “A Methodology for Determining an International Legal Rule” in KD, pp.23-49

Kenneth W. Abbott and Duncan Snidal, “Why States Act Through Formal International Organizations,” in KD, pp.51-79

Anthea Elizabeth Roberts, “Tradition and Modern Approaches to Customary International Law: A Reconciliation,” in KD, pp.81-107

Jose E. Alvarez, “The New Treaty Makers,” in KD, pp.109-123

Pease, “Critical Approaches, pp.70-96


September 18, Participants in International Law; Issues of Implementation and Compliance


Briefing: Principles of universal jurisdiction should be entrenched in international law



Oscar Schachter, “State Succession: The Once and Future Law,” in KD, pp. 127-133

Donna E. Arzt and Igor I. Lukashuk, “Participants in International Legal Relations,” in KD, pp.155-177

Beth A. Simmons, “Compliance with International Agreements,” in KD, pp.181-199

The Princeton Project, “The Princeton Principles of Universal Jurisdiction,” in

KD, pp.201-218

Robert Jervis, “The Compulsive Empire,” Foreign Policy, July/August 2003, pp.82-87

Eduardo Moises-Penalver, “The Persistent Problem of Obligation in International Law,” Stanford Journal of International Law, 36:2, Summer 2000, pp.271-302



Niall Ferguson, “Power,” Foreign Policy, January/February 2003, pp.18-27

Alfred P. Rubin, “Secession and Self-Determination: A Legal, Moral, and Political Analysis,” Stanford Journal of International Law, 36:2, Summer 2000, pp.353-370

Kurt Taylor Gaubatz and Matthew MacArthur, “How International is ‘International’ Law,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 22:2, Winter 2001, pp.239-282

Ved P. Nanda, “Self-Determination and Secession Under International Law,” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 29:4, Summer/Fall 2001, pp.305-326

M. Cherif Bassiouni, “Universal Jurisdiction for International Crimes, Historical Perspective and Contemporary Practice,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 42:1, Fall 2001, pp.81-162


September 25, War and Peace



1)      The 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada violated international law

2)      The 2003 invasion of Iraq, even without UN Security Council authorization, was necessary to uphold international law and the UNSC itself



Anthony Clark Arend and Robert J. Beck, “International Law and the Recourse to Force: A Shift in Paradigms,” in KD, pp.285-309

M. Cherif Bassiouni, “Legal Control of International Terrorism: A Policy Oriented Assessment,” in KD, pp.311-329

Pease, “International Security,” and “Regional Security,” pp.97-154

Christopher C. Joyner, “Reflections on the Lawfulness of Invasion,” American Journal of International Law, 78, 1984, pp.131-44

John Norton Moore, “Grenada and the International Double Standard,” American Journal of International Law, 78, 1984, pp.145-68

Christine Gray, “From Unity to Polarization: International Law and the Use of Force against Iraq,” European Journal of International Law, 13:1, 2002, pp.1-20



Lynn H. Miller, “The Idea and the Reality of Collective Security,” in Paul F. Diehl, Global Governance, International Organizations in an Interdependent World (Lynne Rienner, 2001) pp. 171-201

Joseph S. Nye, Jr., “U.S. Power and Strategy After Iraq,” Foreign Affairs, 82:4, July/August 2003, pp.60-73

Fouad Ajami, “Iraq and the Arabs’ Future,” Foreign Affairs, 82:1, January/February 2003, pp.2-18

Oscar Schachter, “Self-Defense and the Rule of Law,” in KD (1998), pp.307-325

John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, “An Unnecessary War,” Foreign Policy, January/February 2003, pp.50-59

Kenneth M. Pollack, “Next Stop Baghdad?” Foreign Affairs, 81:2, March/April, 2002, pp.32-47

Winston P. Nagan, “Nuclear Arsenals, International Lawyers, and the Challenge of the Millenium,” The Yale Journal of International Law, 24:2, Summer 1999, pp.485-535


October 2, Terrorism and International Law



1)      The United States should have assassinated Saddam Hussein while he was in power

2)      Threats stemming from political terror requires adjustments in international legal norms and international institutions.



R. Smith, “America Tries to Come to Terms with Terrorism,” Cardoso Journal of International and Comparative Law, 5, Spring 1997, pp.249-90

C.A. Anderson, “Assassination: Lawful Homicide and the Butcher of Baghdad,” Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 13, Summer 1992, pp.291-321

L.R. Beres, “The Permissibility of State-Sponsored Assassination during Peace and War,” Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, 5, Fall 1991, pp.231-49

Jules Lobel, “The Use of Force to Respond to Terrorist Attacks: The Bombing of Sudan and Afghanistan,” The Yale Journal of International Law, 24:2, Summer 1999, pp.537-557

Ruth Wedgwood, “Responding to Terrorism: the Strikes Against bid Laden,” The Yale Journal of International Law, 24:2, Summer 1999, pp.559-576

Antonio Cassese, “Terrorism is Also Disrupting Some Crucial Categories of International Law,” European Journal of International Law, 12:5, 2001, pp.993-1001



Gregory M. Travalio, “Terrorism, International Law, and the Use of Military Force,” Wisconsin International Law Journal, 18:1, Winter 2000, pp.145-191


October 9, Peacekeeping and Nation-Building


Briefing: The international community should intervene militarily and establish an enduring political settlement in Liberia



Ralph Zacklin, “Beyond Kosovo: the United Nations and Humanitarian Intervention,” in KD, pp.367-382

Abraham D. Sofaer, “International Law and Kosovo,” Stanford Journal of International Law, 36:1, Winter 2000, pp.1-21

Sebastian Mallaby, “The Reluctant Imperialist,” Foreign Affairs, 81:2, March/April 2002, pp.2-7

Marina Ottoway, “National Building,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2002, pp.16-25

Paul F. Diehl, “Forks in the Road: Theoretical and Policy Concerns for 21st Century Peacekeeping,” in Diehl, Global Governance, International Organizations in an Interdependent World (Lynne Rienner, 2001) pp.202-228

Jose E. Alvarez, “Crimes of States/Crimes of Hate: Lessons from Rwanda,” The Yale Journal of International Law, 24:2, Summer 1999, pp.365-483



Daphna Shraga, “UN Peacekeeping Operations: Applicability of International Humanitarian Law and Responsibility for Operations-Related Damage,” American Journal of International Law, 94:2, April 2000, pp.406-412

Two articles on international law and ethnic conflict, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 32:3,


October 16, Human Rights


Midterm exam, 50 minutes at start of class



1)      Human rights are universal

2)      NATO bombing of Kosovo did not violate international law



Ramesh Thakur, “Human Rights: “Amnesty International and the United Nations,” in Paul F. Diehl, ed., Global Governance, International Organizations in an Interdependent World (Lynne Rienner, 2001), pp.361-87

Dinah Shelton, “Protecting Human Rights in a Globalizing World,” in KD, pp.333-365

Ruth Wedgwood, “International Criminal Law and Augusto Pinochet,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 40:3, Spring 2000, pp.829-847

Karen Engle, “Culture and Human Rights: The Asian Values Debate in Context,” New York Journal of International Law and Politics, 32:2, pp.

Sherri L. Burr, “From Noriega to Pinochet,” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 29:2, Spring 2001, pp.101-114



Thomas M. Antkowiak, “Truth as Right and Remedy in International Human Rights Experience,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 23:4, Summer 2002, pp.977-1013

Alvin H. Chu, “Vindicating the Tiananmen Square Massacre: The Case Against Li Peng,” Wisconsin International Law Journal, 20:1, Winter 2001, pp.197-227

Hilary Charlesworth, “The Mid-Life Crisis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” Washington and Lee Law Review, 55:3, Summer 1998, pp.781-796

Philip Alston, “The UN’s Human Rights Record: From San Francisco to Vienna and Beyond,” in KD (1998) pp.355-368

Jarat Chopra and Thomas G. Weiss, “Sovereignty Is No Longer Sacrosanct: Codifying Humanitarian Intervention,” in KD (1998) pp.369-87


October 23, International Justice


Briefing: The United States should become a signatory to the International Criminal Court



Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Judicial Globalization,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 40:4, Summer 2000, pp.1103-1124

Clive Nicholls, “Reflections on Pinochet,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 41:1, Fall 2000, pp.140-151

Kenneth W. Abbott, “International Relations Theory, International Law, and the Regime Governing Atrocities in Internal Conflicts,” American Journal of International Law, 93:2, April 1999, pp.361-79

Christopher Rudolph, “Constructing an Atrocities Regime: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals,” International Organizaiton, 55:3, Summer 2001, pp.655-691



John P. Murphy, “International crimes,” in Christopher C. Joyner, ed., The United Nations and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp.362-81

W.G. Sharp, “International Obligations to Search for and Arrest War Criminals,” Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 7, Spring 1997, pp.411-60

Jonathan Tepperman, “Truth and Consequences,” Foreign Affairs, 81:2, March/April 2002, pp.128-45

David A. Martin, “Haste, Gaps, and Some Possible Cures for the ICC: An Introduction to the Panel,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 41:1, Fall 2000, pp.152-163

Shabtai Rosenne, “Poor Drafting and Imperfect Organization: Flaws to Overcome in the Rome Statute,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 41:1, Fall 2000, pp.164-185

John R. Bolton, “The Risks and the Weaknesses of the International Criminal Court from America’s Perspective,” Virginia Journal of International Law, 41:1, Fall 2000, pp.186-203

Audrey I. Benison, “International Criminal Tribunals: Is There a Substantive Limitation on the Treaty Power?” Stanford Journal of International Law, 37:1, Winter 2002, pp.75-115




October 30, Globalization and Governance of the World Economy



1)      Existing international law does not make it possible to hold multinational enterprises accountable

2)      International pharmaceutical patents should be upheld through TRIPs



Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Governing the Global Economy through Government Networks,” in Michael Byers, ed. The Role of Law in International Politics, Essays in International Relations and International Law (Oxford, 2000), pp.177-206

Moises Naim, “Five Wars of Globalization,” Foreign Policy, January/February 2003, pp.28-37

Kenneth Rogoff, “The IMF Strikes Back,” Foreign Policy, January/February 2003, pp.38-49

“Measuring Globalization: Who’s Up, Who’s Down?” Foreign Policy, January/February 2003, pp.60-72

Malcolm J. Rogge, “Toward Transnational Corporate Accountability in the Global Economy:  Challenging the Doctrine of Forum Non Conveniens in In Re: Union Carbide, Alfaro, Sequihua, and Aguinda,” Texas International Law Journal, 36:2, Spring 2001, pp.299-318

Eneko Landaburu, “The Fifth Enlargement of the EU: The Power of Example,” Fordham, 26:6, June 2003, pp.1-11



Frederick M. Abbott, “NAFTA and the legalization of world politics: a case study,” International Organization, 54:3, Summer 2000, pp.519-47

Mark B. Baker, “Tightening the Toothless Vise: Codes of Conduct and the American Multinational Enterprise,” Wisconsin International Law Journal, 20:1, Winter 2001, pp.89-142

Markus G. Puder, “Constitutionalizing the European Union,” Fordham, 26:6, June 2003, pp.1562-1597


November 6, International Trade



1)      The WTO is effectively governing the world trade system

2)      Regulations on genetically modified foods amount to protectionism



Pease, “Trade,” pp.155-176

Richard H. Steinberg, “In the Shadow of Law or Power?  Consensus-Based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO,” International Organization, 56:2, Spring 2002, pp.339-74




Susan Esserman and Robert Howse, “The WTO on Trial,” Foreign Affairs, 82:1, January/February 2002, pp.130-141

Susan K. Sell, “Trips and the Access to Medicines Campaign,” Wisconsin International Law Journal, 21:3, Summer 2002, pp.481-522



Geoffrey Garrett, “Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle?” International Organization, 52:4, Autumn 1998, pp.787-824

Dan Turack, “The Clinton Administration’s Response to China’s Human Rights Record,” Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law, 3, Fall 1995, pp.1-50

Matthew Schaefer, “Sovereignty, Influence, Realpolitik and the WTO,” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 25:2, Spring 2002

Jeffery Atik, “Democratizing the WTO,” George Washington International Law Review, 34:3, 2002, pp.451-472



November 13, International Environmental and Commons Law


            Briefing: The international climate change treaty should be implemented



A. Dan Tarlock, “Why Domestic Environmental Law Needs a Robust International Environmental Law Regime,” in KD, pp.385-395

International Law Association, “Searching for the Contours of International Law in the Field of Sustainable Development,” in KD, pp.397-409

Catherine Tinker, “Responsibility for Biological Diversity Conservation Under International Law,” in KD, pp.411-438

Pease, “The Environment,” pp.208-233

Sonia Boutillon, “The Precautionary Principle: Development of an International Standard,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 23:2, Winter 2002, pp.429-469



Elizabeth A. Martell, “Looking Back to See Ahead: UNCLOS III and Lessons for Global Commons Law,” in KD (1998), pp.445-472

Katherine Gorove and Elena Kamenetskaya, “Tensions in the Development of the Law of Outer Space,” in KD (1998), pp.473-506

T.C. Heller, “Environmental Realpolitik: Joint Implementation and Climate Change,” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 3, Spring 1996, pp.296-340

Alexandre Kiss, “The International Protection of the Environment,” in KD (1998), pp.415-442



November 20, Global Inequality, Women, and Refugees



1) Women can use international organizations to advance their policy agendas

2) Lending conditionality should be abolished

3)      UNHCR is able to handle global refugee flows



Pease, “Development,” 177-207 and “Social and Humanitarian Issues,” 234-260

Ellen Dorsey, “The Global Women’s Movement: Articulating a New Vision of Global Governance,” in Paul F. Diehl, ed., Global Governance, International Organizations in an Interdependent World (Lynne Rienner, 2001), pp., pp.436-66

            “Ranking the Rich,” Foreign Policy, May/June 2003, pp.56-67

Liane M. Jarvis, “Women’s Rights and the Public Morals Exception of GATT Article 20,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 22:1, Fall 2000, pp.

Jennifer Riddle, “Making CEDAW Universal,” George Washington International Law Review, 34:3, 2002, pp.605-638

Andrew S. Natsios, “NGOs and the UN System in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Conflict or Cooperation,” in Paul F. Diehl, ed., Global Governance, International Organizations in an Interdependent World (Lynne Rienner, 2001), pp., pp.388-405

Arthur C. Helton, “Rescuing the Refugees,” Foreign Affairs, 81:2, March/April 2002, pp.71-82

Clifford Bob, “Merchants of Morality,” Foreign Policy, March/April 2002, pp.36-45

Moises Naim, “Al Qaeda, the NGO,” Foreign Policy, March/April 2002, pp. 99-100



David A. Martin, “Refugees and migration,” in Joyner, The United Nations and International Law, pp.155-80

Frank J. Garcia, “Trade and Inequality: Economic Justice and the Developing World,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 21:4, Summer 2000, pp.975-1049

Jaya Ramji, “Legislating Away International Law: The Refugee Provisions of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act,” Stanford Journal of International Law, 37:1, Winter 2001, pp.117-162



December 4, The Future of Law and Organization



Pease, “Global Governance,” pp.261-273

John King Gamble and Charlotte Ku, “International Law—New Actors and New Technologies: Center Stage for NGOs?” in KD, pp.505-529

Richard Falk and Andrew Strauss, “On the Creation of a Global Peoples Assembly: Legitimacy and the Power of Popular Sovereignty,” Stanford Journal of International Law,, 36:2, Summer 2000, pp.191-219

Ivan Simonovic, “Relative Sovereignty of 21st Century,” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 25:2, Spring 2002, pp.371-381

Michael Byers, “The Shifting Foundations of International Law,” European Journal of International Law, 13:1, 2002, pp.21-41



December 11, Final exam, 6-7:50 p.m.





Each student will address the assigned assertion in seven minutes.  (The instructor will time presentations and cut off those that go beyond the time allotted.)   Put forward all possible facets of international law that bear on the issue; note the interests of the principal actors affected by the issue; and present arguments in support of and opposed to your position.




Papers on International Organizations:


Who created it, when, and why?

How is the IO set up?

How are decisions made within the IO?

What are the funding (or other necessary resources) sources for the IO?

How does the IO exercise influence (why does anyone pay attention to it?)

What are the big issues confronting the IO today?

What are the principal sources of the IO’s problems or weaknesses?

What efforts have been made in the past to fix these problems?  What have the outcomes of these efforts?


If you opt to write about one of the following IOs and let the professor know of your choice in writing by September 18th, you do not need to seek approval of your choice.  All other choices require approval and consultation with the professor by September 12th.



World Trade Organization,

International Monetary Fund,

World Bank,

United Nations,

International Labor Organization,

Arab League,

Organization of American States,

European Union,

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe,

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation,

Organization of African Unity,

North Atlantic Treaty Organization,

International Atomic Energy Commission,