International Criminal Law focuses on the redress of serious crimes on the international level. Since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, there have been ad hoc tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, hybrid tribunals (part domestic and international), and the creation of the International Criminal Court, the permanent court made to deal with genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and aggressive war (starting from 2017). Regional courts, such as the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, also address crimes. All of these courts have arrived recently in history, and play important parts in international criminal justice. Other means to address international crimes may be addressed as well. There is no final exam in International Criminal Law. Public International Law and International Human Rights courses are recommended but not required to take International Criminal Law.