HISTORY AND PHOTOGRAPHY: GERMAN PHOTOS FROM THE EUROPEAN EASTERN FRONT OF
WORLD WAR II (1939-1945)
Authors: Natalie Cincotta
Faculty Mentor: Heide Fehrenbach & Vera Lind
The research will examine how scholars of Nazi Germany from the 1980s to the present have utilized photography as historical evidence. The research provides a detailed review of both historical and photographic literature to examine how historians and scholars in related disciplines have used both ofﬁ cial and amateur photographs as evidence of Nazi atrocities on the eastern front during the period 1939 to 1945. The project explains several key questions in this examination: What are the photographs a representation of, and how do scholars interpret this? What is the relationship between the image presented by the photographer and historical reality? How have scholars dealt with this relationship? Finally, what are the methodological challenges in using photos in historical work? Historical debates relating to the use of photos has arisen in my literature review. Some scholars use photos to visually illustrate what is being argued in the written text, and thus consider photos as windows to past realities. In contrast, other scholars argue that photos take on different meanings over time, and thus are not realistic representations of the past. Thus the latter group of scholars argue that photos should be treated as distinct pieces of evidence that need to be interpreted and explained. Hence, there is a lack of consensus on how photos, particularly of the Nazi era on the Eastern Front, should be used in history. The ﬁ nal part of the project interprets the diverse range of methodologies, including their strengths and weaknesses, to conclude a more critical, concise approach to utilizing photographs in history. Increasingly, historians are turning to photography as historical evidence, not just for illustration, so it is important to develop a careful, critical methodology to analyze photography.
"THERE’S NO VALLEY SO SWEET” THE MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN THE LOWER FOX VALLEY
RIVER REGION: 1833 – 1852
Authors: Wayne Duerkes
Faculty Mentor: Bradley Bond
The research examines the development of the market economy in the region which encompasses southern DeKalb and northern LaSalle County from 1833 to 1852. The region’s history has been the domain of local history buffs’ tales, or it has been relegated to a sideshow of Chicago, or a mere footnote in the state history. In large part, the complexity of the region begins with its geographic location at the confluence of the Fox and Illinois rivers. The location’s market, originally thought to have preferential economic ties to St. Louis during the pre-railroad era, was actually an economic battleground for commercial trade between Chicago and St. Louis. The rivalry between these two markets was crucial to the growth and development of the communities located in north central Illinois. The study will also demonstrate how the region was not an amalgamation of new and various economic processes but rather more of a re-introduction of the economic situation many immigrants had left in their eastern origins. The lower Fox Valley River communities and the market developed there becomes an integral story in understanding the economic growth of the Midwest.
EXAMINING THE SOCIAL NETWORKS OF ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
Authors: Jacob Lawrence
Faculty Mentor: Jerome Bowers
The focus of the product line at CST Storage in DeKalb, IL is: porcelain enameled tanks constructed from steel plates. These are enameled on the “glass line”, which consists of one major component “ﬁ ring”, which bonds the porcelain glass to the steel. The furnace, which does the ﬁ ring, limits the productivity of this process because it must be adjusted to accommodate for different thicknesses of the plates and their desired colors. While the furnace is heating or cooling or the line, that holds the plates is changing speeds the furnace must be empty, the time that the furnace is empty is called set up time. The objective is to reduce set up time. Reduction of set up time will be accomplished by creating part families, which can be run through the furnace under the same temperatures and line speeds. Families will be composed of sheets with similar ﬁ ring parameters. Different combinations of line speeds, temperatures, and set up times will be tested to determine if certain types of plates can be combined into part families. This kind of testing is called a designed experiment and accounts for the effects of each variable and the effects caused by the interaction of these variables on the response. The response in this case is whether or not a good sheet is produced. The goal is to reach the minimal set up time without reducing the quality of the enameled steel plates. Designed experiments and other Industrial Engineering tools, such as time studies and simulation will be used to accomplish this goal without detriment to the efﬁ ciency of the rest of the process.
THE POLITICS OF GENOCIDE: HOW THE TRIPOLARITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
PRIMED CAMBODIA FOR GENOCIDE, 1953-1979
Authors: Ronald Leonhardt
Faculty Mentor: J.D. Bowers
Although there is a substantial body of literature analyzing the causes of the Cambodian genocide, the Cold War’s inﬂuence on the rise of the Khmer Rouge and the subsequent genocide is often overlooked. Once the Cold War settled into Southeast Asia, social unrest, economic decay, and political impotency began to pool in the fault lines of Cambodia’s domestic stability. A collapse of these institutions ultimately led to xenophobia, mass repression, and genocide under the Khmer Rouge. This connection, however, between the Cold War and the Cambodian genocide has been obscured in favor of intraregional issues. Although racial and ethnic tensions, struggles for control within the Pol 73 Pot regime, and socioeconomic changes in the rural and urban areas illuminate crucial components of the genocide, such components do not explain why such deep social and political fractures developed in the ﬁ rst place. Essentially, this project will explain what cannot be explained through regional analyses. Cambodia’s economic dependence on the United States, the ramiﬁ cations of the Vietnam War, Democratic Kampuchea’s alignment with China, and the ideological radicalism of the Khmer Rouge all allude to the greater Cold War context of superpowers manipulating smaller nations in pursuit of selﬁ sh geopolitical goals. This transregional source of genocidal causality has always existed as an undertone in genocide studies; it was simply not organized into a macrocosmic Cold War framework. Thus, this project addresses this void in genocide studies and helps show the genocide for what it is—a product of the Cold War.
THE ROLES OF ANGLO-SAXON WOMEN IN SAXON MISSIONARY WORK
Authors: Jessie Shattuck
Faculty Mentor: Valerie Garver
Many American students have read or at least heard of the epic Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, written in England in the early Middle Ages. Although women do not play a dominant role in the poem, examining the few women’s actions in this epic and a few other poems reveals their roles in Anglo-Saxon society. They are often viewed as “peace-weavers,” a term that the Anglo-Saxons may not have used themselves, but that reﬂ ects their roles as keeping the peace among men through marriage, gift giving, and being virtuous and courteous women. In my research, I delve into the possibility that their roles in society passed into their missionary work in Saxony (today part of Germany). As abbesses, Anglo-Saxon women played a prominent role in assisting Bishop Boniface in converting and establishing German Christian communities according to Roman Catholic Doctrine. Instead of being “peace-weavers” between men, they became “peace-weavers” between people and Christ.
KNIGHTS IN BATTLE: A COMPARISON OF THE MASCULINITY OF FRENCH AND ENGLISH
KNIGHTS FROM LATE 11TH - 12TH CENTURIES
Authors: Andrew Smith
Faculty Mentor: Valerie Garver
My research compares and contrasts the ideological masculinity of knights in England and France as portrayed in epic poetry, historical texts, and art from late 11th – 12th centuries. To investigate French knights I studied two legendary epics the Chanson de Roland (written 1100), which describes the massacre of the French rear guard at the pass of Roncevaux, and Guillaume d’Orange (written 1200), which tells of the life of William of Orange who “heroically” fought against the Saracens and won lands for Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, for French knights. To study English knights, I studied the Bayeux Tapestry (made sometime between 1067 and 1082), which depicts the Norman invasion of England and The History of the Kings of England (written 1138) by Geoffrey of Monmouth, which is a “history” of England since Roman rule. Typical historical documents are lacking for the Middle Ages making purely historical research difﬁcult; thus I take an interdisciplinary approach in my research. The History of the Kings of England is a historical type of source; the Bayeux Tapestry is a work of art; and the Chansons are literature. My methodology consists of studying the historiography of each primary source and the primary source itself to learn about the ideals of masculinity of knights. My research has shown some similarities between French and English knights and some of the differences between them.
RETHINKING THE NARRATIVE OF THE CHARLEMAGNE WINDOW AT CHARTRES CATHEDRAL
Authors: Jennifer Wegmann-Gabb
Department: Art History
Faculty Mentor: Ann Van Dijk & Valerie Garver
The Charlemagne window at Chartres Cathedral is unique in its presence as the only window dedicated solely to a historical rather than religious individual. Scholars have yet to agree upon the windows meaning and purpose. This paper examines the current leading theories on the purpose and meaning of the Charlemagne window, and proposes a middle ground between them. Elizabeth Paston argues that the Charlemagne window’s narrative focuses on his relationship with relics and then attempts to link Charlemagne (or the memory of) to the relics of Chartres. Paston also argues against the popular belief that panels 16 and 21 were switched during an early 20th century cleaning. Mary Jane Schenck, alternatively argues that the window has little to do with the relics of Chartres and instead exempliﬁes Charlemagne as a great Christian king for France. Schenck further argues that ﬁ gures in the window previously believed to be Roland, nephew to Charlemagne, instead are Charlemagne himself. If the switching of panels 16 and 21, and the idea that certain scenes portray Charlemagne and not Roland are accepted, then I argue that the narrative in the window serves the dual purpose of invoking Charlemagne’s memory in regards to the relics of Chartres and elevating the kingship of Charlemagne as the beginning point of the Christian kingdom of France in the 12th century.