1. Which lake is the world's deepest and biggest fresh water lake?
    A) The Caspian Sea
    B) The Black Sea
    C) Lake Baykal

  2. The annual number of thunderstorms is greatest in which of the following states:
    A) California
    B) Illinois
    C) Florida

  3. What is the study and practice of making maps?
    A) topology
    B) graphicacy
    C) cartography

  4. On average, how many tornadoes are reported in the United States each year?
    A) 500
    B) 800
    C) 1200
    D) 1800

  5. In order to make a hemisphere map look as if the Earth were being viewed from space, a cartographer uses:
    A) a stereographic projection
    B) a telephoto lens
    C) an orthographic projection

  6. What is permafrost?
    A) a food preservation technique used by Siberian natives
    B) cold-resistant vegetation
    C) permanently frozen subsurface material
    D) a large uninhabitable region in Eastern Russia

  7. Which of the following mountain ranges was uplifted when India collided with Asia?
    A) Ural Mountains
    B) Himalayan Mountains
    C) Andes Mountains      

  8. Competing retailers cluster together in malls and shopping centers to take advantage of:
    A) economies of distance
    B) agglomeration economies
    C) international trade

  9. What Spanish term do meteorologists use to denote a widespread and long-lived windstorm that is associated with a band of rapidly moving thunderstorms?
    A) tornado
    B) derecho
    C) chubasco
    D) Chinook

  10. Which of the following statements is true:
    A) all Arabs are Muslim
    B) all Muslims live in N Africa/SW Asia
    C) Turks, Persians, and Israelis are not Arab
    D) no Palestinians currently live in Israel

  11. The Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland on the Baltic Sea is
    A) Kaliningrad   
    B) Kiev 
    C) Vladivostok                  

  12. Maps that show the shape and elevation of terrain are called –
    A) topographic maps
    B) cadastral maps
    C) planimetric maps

  13. Global Climate Change is related to enhanced levels of:
    A) oxygen
    B) carbon dioxide
    C) stratospheric ozone

  14. A climatic condition that might benefit Russia in the future is: 
    A) continentality
    B) tundra
    C) greenhouse effect

  15. The official datum for maps constructed in the United States is:
    A) North American Datum, 1927
    B) North American Datum, 1983
    C) World Geodetic System, 1984

  16. In what year did the deadliest tornado occur in the United States, and what states did that tornado impact?

  17. The _______________ was a 2-way continental interchange of plants, animals, technology and people.
    A) Treaty of Tordesillas
    B) Pristine myth
    C) Columbian exchange
    D) New World exchange

  18. The Tropic of Cancer is an example of a –
    A) meridian
    B) line of latitude
    C) line of longitude

  19. Altitudinal zonation describes how climate changes with:
    A)  elevation
    B)  latitude
    C)  industrialization
    D)  location relative to the Equator

  20. The longest river in Europe is ____________.
    A) Volga
    B) Thames
    C) Rhine              

  21. In the mid-19th Century, the Great Plains gained a reputation as:
    A) The Empty Interior
    B) The Great American Desert
    C) The Corn Belt
    D) Canyon Country

  22. Maquiladoras are:
    A) Undocumented Mexican workers
    B) Small, traditional houses in the Southwest
    C) A type of traditional meal made from corn and red beans
    D) Foreign-owned factories along the Mexican border

  23. About 2/5 of this country is made up of polder or polder land which was once covered by the sea or lakes or by swaps. This country is:
    A) Italy
    B) New Zealand
    C) Netherlands                                                

  24. The Tri-State Tornado, which occurred on March 18, 1925 and killed nearly 700 people, started in what state?
    A) Missouri
    B) Illinois
    C) Arkansas

  25. Who invented the thermometer?

  26. The method of representing the surface of a sphere on a plane is called:
    A) map projection
    B) perspective
    C) deformation

  27. Which of the following would NOT be part of a developing country’s informal economy?
    A) household work
    B) street vending
    C) family farming
    D) assembling components for automobiles

  28. What do you call water that remains in the liquid state despite having a temperature of less than 32ºF?
    A) Sleet
    B) Supercooled water
    C) Graupel
    D) Wet snow

  29. Where is the geographical origin of Islam?
    A) Mecca
    B) Tehran
    C) Jerusalem

  30. Lake effect snows primilary occur on the east side of Lake Michigan because:
    A) temperatures are always colder on that side of the lake
    B) surface winds generally blow most frequently from west-to-east in the mid-latitudes
    C) Chicago's urban heat island provides the heat and water vapor to cause snow on the east side of the lake.

  31. Most fatalities associated with tornadoes occur in:
    A) Permanent Houses
    B) Mobile Homes
    C) Vehicles

  32. What is the term that describes an area where air temperature increases with height in the atmosphere?
    A) convection
    B) inversion
    C) advection

  33. Latent heat is released into the atmosphere during which of the following processes?
    A) Sublimation
    B) Evaporation
    C) Condensation

  34. Tobler’s First Law of Geography tells us that the closer things are:
    A) the more related or similar they are
    B) the more dissimilar they are
    C) the more likely they are to influence global processes

  35. Which of the following states is the furthest south?
    A) Texas
    B) Florida
    C) Hawaii

  36. What do meteorologists call a thunderstorm that a has deep, continuously-rotating updraft?

  37. All of these countries either now have or once had Communist governments, except:
    A) Vietnam
    B) North Korea
    C) China
    D) Cambodia
    E) Indonesia

  38. This is the largest country in population in Africa.
    A) Nigeria
    B) Kenya
    C) South Africa

  39. Air temperature generally __________ with height in the stratosphere.
    A) decreases
    B) remains constant
    C) increases

  40. What percentage of the Canadian population lives within 95 miles of the country’s southern border?
    A) 25%
    B) 50%
    C) 75% 
    D) 90%

  41. The name of the West Bank refers to its location west to_________.
    A) Palestine
    B) Jordan River
    C) Dead Sea       

  42. Warm air can hold ________ water vapor compared to an equal amount of colder air.
    A) less
    B) the same amount of
    C) more

  43. An eastern US river that is believed to be second oldest river in the world.
    A) The Susquehanna
    B) The New
    C) The Roanoke

  44. Geodetic measurements from over the past 20 to 30 years reveal that the Earth is becoming:
    A) more spherical
    B) more elliptical
    C) more populous

  45. Hurricanes do not form over the equator because of an absence in this force/effect:
    A) Pressure Gradient
    B) Centripetal
    C) Coriolis

  46. If a parcel (pocket may be a better choice of words) of air is warmer than the surrounding air, this parcel (pocket) of air will:
    A) Rise
    B) Sink
    C) Remain Stable

  47. What city benefited most from the Gold Rush?
    A) San Diego                                     
    B) San Francisco
    C) Los Angeles
    D) Seattle

  48. In 1983, President Reagan was almost killed by what weather phenomenon?
    A)  tornado  
    B)  blizzard
    C) microburst
    D) hurricane

  49. In which country did Buddhism originate?
    A) Japan
    B) China
    C) India

  50. The rainbow trout has been transplanted to nearly every continent on the earth from where?
    A) Northern Europe
    B) Western North America
    C) New Zealand

  51. The potato originated from which continent?
    A) South America
    B) Europe
    C) Africa

  52. Corn ethanol and biodiesel fuel production plants are optimally located:
    A) near the consumer market, because these products are volatile and costly to ship
    B) near grain producing regions , because weight is lost in the production of these fuels
    C) along major highways, because that’s where the fuel is used 

  53. Coffee plant originated from________.
    A) Brazil
    B) Ethiopia Highlands
    C) Colombia

  54. CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) is a measure of positive buoyancy of an air parcel accumulated from the ________________ to the Equilibrium Level.
    A) Level of Free Convection
    B) Lifted Condensation Level
    C) Surface

  55. Mercator, Robinson, Orthographic, and Azimuthal are all samples of:
    A) map projections
    B) bathymetric charts
    C) nautical charts

  56. To communicate a message effectively most maps need what features?
    A)  a title, a legend, a scale bar, a direction arrow
    B) roads, drainage, source information, boat ramp locations
    C) parks, parking locations, border, locator

  57. What is the apparent force associated with the rotation of the Earth and causes the air to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere?
    A)  Coriolis Force
    B) Angular Momentum
    C) Pressure Gradient Force

  58. The shape of the Earth is best described as:
    A) a sphere
    B) an oblate ellipsoid
    C) a geoid (or lumpy ellipsoid)

  59. What's the longest distance a person has been picked up by a tornado and lived to tell about it?

  60. Quinine is derived from the cinchona bark and was used to prevent malaria and allowed European expansion into the African continent.  Where did the cinchona bark originate?
    A) Africa
    B) Southeast Asia
    C) South America

  61. Coptic Christianity is located where?
    A) Middle East
    B) India
    C) Africa

  62. During late afternoon, after a round of thunderstorms, you notice an increase in the winds speed along with an abrupt wind shift from southerly to westerly. What type of front just passed?
    A) Stationary
    B) Warm
    C) Cold

  63. Most of the people in Oceania live in:
    A) Australia
    B) New Zealand
    C) Fiji
    D) Papua New Guinea
    E) Marshall Islands

  64. DeKalb, Illinois is defined as having a ____________ according to the Koppen Climate Classification system:
    A) Hot Summer Continental climate
    B) Dry Summer Subtropical climate
    C) Maritime Temperate climate

  65.  __________ is the household registration system in China that restricts the movement of people from rural to urban areas.  
    A) driver license registration
    B) Hukou
    C)  SSN system

  66. Which region of a jetstreak would result in upper level divergence, thus possible formation of extratropical cyclones?
    A) Left Entrance Region
    B) Left Exit Region
    C) Right Exit Region

  67. Timekeeping device that enabled the calculation of longitude.
    A) The Pendulum
    B) The Chronometer
    C) The Sextant

  68. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986:
    A) abolished the country-of-origins quota system of admission into the U.S.
    B) allowed illegal immigrants in the U.S. to legalize their status
    C) decreased the amount of immigration from the Latin America to the U.S.
    D) established a guest worker program for Mexican laborers

  69.  Which weather variable decreases from the surface of the earth to the top of the atmosphere?
    A) temperature
    B) pressure
    C) wind speed

  70. This is the largest Muslim country in the world.
    A) Saudi Arabia
    B) Iran
    C) Indonesia

  71. What is the average annual snowfall in Chicago?
    A) 28 inches
    B) 38 inches
    C) 48 inches
    D) 58 inches

  72. Los Angeles is characterized by its:
    A) polynucleated urban area
    B) increasing smog and poor air quality problems
    C) extensive and heavily-used metro system
    D) dense urban population
    E) danger of falling into the ocean with the next major earthquake

  73. How hot is lightning?

  74. The geographic center of North America (Canada, the United States & Mexico) is located:
    A) in north central Kansas
    B) in west central Illinois
    C) near Sioux City in western Iowa

  75. Maps that show spatial features distorted in proportion to the value of an attribute are called:
    A) pictogram
    B) cartouche
    C) cartogram

  76. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China is designed to divert water from the _________ to the north. 
    A) Great Canal
    B) Yangtze River (Chang Jiang)
    C) Yellow River

  77. Approximately 2.3 billion people (1/3) of the 6.9 billion living on earth today are infected with this disease producing organism.
    A) H1N1 (Swine Flu)
    B) TB (Tuberculosis)
    C) Plasmodium (Malaria)               

  78. In the Southern Hemisphere, surface winds circulate _______ around a surface low pressure system
    A) randomly
    B) clockwise
    C) counterclockwise

  79. Weather occurs primarily in what layer of the atmosphere?
    A) Troposphere
    B) Stratosphere
    C) Mesosphere

  80. Which statement below describes import substitution industrialization (ISI)?
    A) changing from one foreign supplier to another
    B) replacing locally produced goods with imports
    C) manufacturing goods that had been previously imported
    D) exporting and importing the same type of product

  81. Which of the following states in the US has the least percentage of adult obesity?
    A) Colorado
    B) Minnesota
    C) California

  82.  According to mobile Doppler radar data of the May 3, 1999 Moore Oklahoma tornado, the highest tornado wind speeds may reach:
    A) 150 mph
    B) 200 mph
    C) 315 mph
    D) 760 mph

  83. Which of the following of the following states is the furthest west?
    A) Alaska
    B) Hawaii
    C) Washington

  84. Geography is called a visual science because:
    A) it has to be seen to be appreciated
    B) it uses and produces maps
    C) everything we talk about in geography can be seen in the world around us

  85. Which of the following of the following states is the furthest east?
    A) Maine
    B) Florida
    C) Alaska

  86. Cloudy skies can lead to ________ daytime temperatures and ________ nighttime temperatures.
    A)  lower, lower
    B) higher, lower
    C) lower, higher

  87. The average American produces __ pounds of household garbage per year.
    A) 50
    B) 250
    C) 800
    D) 1600
    E) 5000

  88. Most of the electricity generated in Northern Illinois is from:
    A) nuclear
    B) wind
    C) coal
    D) natural gas

  89. Approximately __ % of the global land area is designated as protected from human impact (national parks, wilderness areas, etc.)?
    A) 1
    B) 5
    C) 20
    D) 45

  90. The gas most responsible for climate change is:
    A) Ozone
    B) Carbon monoxide
    C) Sulfur dioxide
    D) CFC
    E) Carbon dioxide

  91. Americans (who make up 4% of the world's population) use approximately __% of the worlds energy?
    A) 5
    B) 25
    C) 50
    D) 75

  92. In what part of the world does the tree-line extend the farthest north?
    A) Siberia
    B) Norwest Territory
    C) Alaska
    D) Norway

  93. What causes a fjord?
    A) glacier
    B) river
    C) flooding
    D) water pollution

  94. Which lake would be considered the headwater of the single drainage system formed by the Great Lakes?
    A) Erie
    B) Huron
    C) Superior
    D) Ontario
    E) Michigan

  95. What is a meander?
    A) small hill
    B) pile of debris left by a glacier
    C) bend in a river or stream
    D) volcanic island

  96. What is the correct name given to a broad flat-bottomed volcanic crater?
    A) cinder cone
    B) laccolith
    C) fumarole
    D) caldera

  97. Along which country's coast is the world's second largest coral reef located?
    A) Belize
    B) Costa Rica
    C) Guatamala
    D) Honduras
    E) Bahamas

  98. The formation of algal blooms in waterways is a result of agro-chemicals running off into natural stream and river systems. This process of algal bloom formation from chemical input in known as ________?
    A) algification
    B) phosphoresence
    C) bioaccumulation
    D) eutrophication

  99. The majority of ozone depletion occurs in which layer of the atmosphere?
    A) troposphere
    B) stratosphere
    C) mesosphere
    D) ionosphere

  100. The largest earthquake of the 20th century occurred on what continent?
    A) North America
    B) South America
    C) Asia
    D) Africa
    E) Australia

  101. Large earthquakes are often followed by smaller earthquakes called:
    A) baby earthquakes
    B) foreshocks
    C) aftershocks
    D) mini-quakes

  102. What natural disasters can earthquakes cause
    A) hurricanes
    B) tornadoes
    C) tsunamis
    D) blizzards
    E) landslides

  103. The major earthquake fault closest to Illinois is the:
    A) New Madrid fault
    B) San Andreas fault
    C) Mid-Atlantic ridge
    D) Africa rift zone

  104. What is the official state soil of Illinois?
    A) Tama silty clay loam
    B) Drummer silty clay loam
    C) Antigo silt loam
    D) Lester clay loam

  105. What charts were developed in cooperation with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service guidelines for classifying colors of various soils?
    A) True soil color chart
    B) SCS color guide chart
    C) Munsell Soil Color Chart
    D) Solium chart

  106. Which of the following countries do not use the Euro as its national currency.
    A) Luxembourg
    B) Germany
    C) Switzerland
    D) Ireland
    E) Malta
    E) France

  107. What city has the largest ethnically Polish population outside of the Polish capital, Warsaw? 
    A) New York City, US
    B) London, England 
    C) Munich, Germany
    D) Chicago, US

  108. About 63 percent of the world's production of uranium from mines is from which countries?
    A) United States, China and Japan
    B) Kazakhstan, Canada and Australia
    C) Russia, Uzbekistan and South Africa
    D) Pakistan, France and Germany

  109. What state produces the most corn?
    A) Illinois
    B) Nebraska
    C) Minnesota
    D) Iowa

  110. What was Americas first transcontinental highway called?
    A) Lincoln Highway
    B) Route 66
    C) Oregon Trail
    D) Atlantic to Pacific Highway

  111. Which of these food categories is most likely to be produced near major metropolitan areas?
    A) Grain
    B) Dairy
    C) Livestock

  112. Which country had colonized the largest areas in North America by the late 1700's?
    A) England
    B) Spain
    C) France

  113. A chart which demonstrates the age profile of a region is known as what?
    A) Population pyramid
    B) Demographic chart
    C) Age profile chart

  114. The Earth achieved a population of 1 billion around 1830 C.E. When did the population reach 2 billion?
    A) 1890
    B) 1930
    C) 1960

  115. The world's largest city in population is:
    A) Mumbai
    B) New York
    C) Tokyo

  116. Bangladesh has a population of approximately 160 million living in an area about the
    size of . . .?
    A) Canada
    B) Iowa
    C) Texas

  117. Chicago became a major livestock center largely because of its access to what?
    A) Banks
    B) Highways
    C) Railroads

  118. What was responsible for the death of over a quarter of Europe's population between 1347 and 1351?
    A) Influenza
    B) Typhoid
    C) Black Death

  119. In 2010, what percentage of the world's population lives in urban areas?
    A) 38%
    B) 51%
    C) 83%

  120. In 2010, one African country was among the world's ten most populated countries. How many are expected to be in the Top Ten by 2050?
    A) One
    B) Three
    C) Seven