FY2010: Fiscal Overview & Budget Summary
The Illinois Constitution requires the governor to prepare and present a State budget recommendation for the state to the General Assembly. The Constitution also requires that the proposed budget be balanced and include recommended spending levels for state agencies, estimated funds available from tax collections and other sources, and state debt and liabilities. The Governorís Office of Management and Budget (GOMB) estimates revenues in consultation with the Department of Revenue and GOMB subsequently develops budget recommendations that reflect the governorís programmatic and spending priorities.
Planning: September through January
Planning for the next fiscal year begins each fall. During the planning phase, the following activities occur:
- Agencies work with GOMB and the Governorís Office to refine strategic priorities, develop initiatives to achieve those priorities, and evaluate actual performance compared to benchmarks from comparable states or other peer entities;
- GOMB and agency staff identify and estimate potential spending for the coming fiscal year, including both the costs of current and potential programs and the value of expansion, modification or elimination of various programs;
- Working with the Council of Economic Advisors, GOMB and the Department of Revenue review economic forecasts and make preliminary revenue estimates;
- GOMB, the Department of Central Management Services and agencies review statewide trends and administrative processes to find and reduce inefficiencies and propose reallocation of resources to improve efficiency and promote better government;
- Based on targets, assumptions and materials provided to agencies by GOMB, agencies prepare, and GOMB reviews, preliminary budget materials;
- GOMB, the Governorís Office and agencies meet to review and discuss available revenue, anticipated spending and program priorities to develop budgets that reflect the core priorities of the agency;
- Periodically, GOMB reviews revenue and spending estimates, resulting in review and reprioritization of agency and state priorities;
- When final budget options are developed, they are presented to the governor for review and approval before they are drafted in legislative form. GOMB then produces the budget book, a narrative explaining the budget and providing complete budget table forms;
- The governor announces and describes the budget in the annual Budget Address; and
- GOMB drafts appropriation bills to implement the governorís budget recommendations.
Legislative Deliberation: February through May
After the Governorís Budget Address in February, legislative review of the governorís budget recommendations begins almost immediately with hearings before House and Senate appropriation committees. During this period, the following activities occur:
- Appropriation committees may adopt amendments to change the funding level recommended by the Governor;
- Once passed by the first committee, an appropriation bill moves to the full House or Senate for consideration, amendment and a vote. Following passage in the first legislative chamber, the appropriation bill moves to the
second chamber, where a similar process takes place. Changes made in either chamber must ultimately be accepted in identical form by both chambers for the bill to pass and be presented to the governor;
- As the budget moves through the legislature, GOMB monitors any amendments as well as substantive legislation to identify potential fiscal impacts;
- By statute, and if requested, any proposed amendments to the budget and any substantive legislation with fiscal or revenue impacts must be accompanied by a fiscal note to describe such impacts; and
- Final approval of the budget usually occurs at the end of the legislative session, typically by the end of May. The Illinois Constitution requires a simple majority vote of the General Assembly for a bill passed on or before May 31 to take effect immediately. On or after June 1, a three-fifths super majority vote of the General Assembly is required in order for a bill to take effect for the upcoming fiscal year.
Gubernatorial Review: Following end of Legislative Session
Once the General Assembly passes the budget, the governor must sign appropriation bills before funds can be spent. If the Governor chooses not to approve a specific appropriation, he may either veto a specific line item or reduce it. The rest of the appropriation bill is unaffected by these vetoes and becomes effective. Line items that have been vetoed or reduced must be reconsidered by the General Assembly during the fall session. The General Assembly may return an item to the enacted level by simple majority vote in both chambers in the case of a reduction veto and by a three-fifths super majority vote in the case of a line item veto. If additional resources beyond those initially approved in the budget become necessary, a supplemental appropriation bill may be passed any time the General Assembly is in session. Please refer to Table I-B for current supplemental appropriation bills being considered for spring 2010.