PLEASE CALL 815-753-5200 for permit course information. Course details may change. For the most up-to-date information, please see our online listings: www.niu.edu/lasbgs
ATTENTION BGS STUDENTS: You will apply for graduation during the semester in which you register for your final term. You should meet with your adviser to determine that you are registering for the correct courses. You and your adviser must be certain that your file in Registration and Records is complete and accurate with all documents (transcripts, grade changes, substitutions, adviser approval letters) and information necessary for graduation. Please carefully review your Academic Advising Report for accuracy. It is your responsibility to contact your adviser with any questions regarding descrepancies that appear on this report. You may review your Academic Advising Report through MyNIU
The deadlines for applying for May/Spring 2013 graduation is December 1, 2012. The deadline for August/Summer 2013 graduation is May 1, 2013 and the deadline for December/Fall graduation is July 1, 2013. You must have at least 90 total semester hours to apply for graduation. The $29.00 graduation fee will be billed to your student account. Absolutely no late applications will be accepted.
Course titled with a computer means that the class is offered online.
This course will describe and analyze the cultures of native peoples of North America. The diversity of social, economic, religious life, languages, and arts of representative Indian groups from the various geographic regions will be covered. Established pre-Columbian patterns, experiences with European colonization, culture change, and 20th century reconfigurations will be discussed. This course will be web-based with 3 face-to-face meetings and will use a combination of online topic modules, text readings, formal lecture, topical videos, in-class "hands-on" small group and whole class exercises, and ongoing discussion.
Catalog Description: Description and analysis of the cultures of native peoples of North America. Social, economic, and religious life; languages and arts of representative North American Indian groups.
Judith Calleja (3 credit hours)
This course will discuss key concepts and events in Native American history since the establishment of the United States of American, the changing views of cultural stewardship, museum's role in artifacts and repatriation, and recent events and case studies. This course will survey cultures of the native peoples of North America, and the contemporary issues of various US laws and statutes. This course will be web-based with 3 face-to-face meetings, and will use a combination of online modules and lectures, text readings, videos, activities, and ongoing group discussion.
Catalog Description: May be repeated to a maximum of 6 semester hours. PRQ: Consent of department.
Karly Tumminello (3 credit hours)
BIOS 418 is designed as an introduction to human heredity for non-science majors. Students will study the basics of gene transmission at both the classical and molecular levels emphasizing the impact of inherited traits on the individual, offspring, and populations. Topics to include transmission of genes (inheritance), DNA structure and chromosome organization, karyotyping and chromosomal aberrations, pedigree analysis, human genetic disorders, environmental interactions, cancer, biotechnology etc. No previous biology required; No credit towards a major in biological sciences.
Catalog Description: Inheritance in humans. Not open for credit toward the major in biological sciences. PRQ: BIOS 103, BIOS 104, or BIOS 109, or equivalent.
Michael Hudspeth (3 credit hours)
The perennial culture wars raging in the USA are expressed in many areas of society. One area of attack is the opposition by the Religious Right to the teaching of evolution in public schools. Since before the famous "Scopes Monkey Trial" in 1925, school boards and legislatures have tried to eliminate, add equal doses of creationism to, or water down the coverage of evolution. They have targeted evolution as a cause for many of their perceived "social evils," don't understand science, and cannot separate evolution from "Social Darwinism."
This course will introduce students to the history of the controversy, define the opposition, and explain where each side gets their ideas and what they believe. We will then explore philosophy of science in enough detail to be able to separate a scientific question from a non-scientific question. A preliminary survey of primarily biological evolution will provide students with the necessary information to counter creationist arguments. This course is designed to give students the ability to not only defend evolution but, more importantly, attack non-scientific intrusions into the public school system. It is not a course in biological evolution but complementary, and can be taken by any upper-level undergraduate with an interest in science and society.
Catalog Description: Evolutionary theory and tenets of present-day anti-evolutionists with emphasis on providing students with the skills to articulate the theory of evolution as it applies to the biological sciences. Not designed as a substitute for a formal course in evolutionary theory. Recommended for students pursuing careers in secondary science education.
Ronald Toth (3 credit hours)
This class will focus on interviewing from both the interviewer and interviewee standpoint, working together as teams, and preparing written documents for the workplace. We will also evaluate culture and its impact on the global workforce, as well as, acceptable and unacceptable forms of behavior for cultures worldwide.
Catalog Description: Development of communication skills commonly used in governmental, corporate, and nonprofit agencies. Emphasis on report generation, information interviewing, and the presentation of proposals. Because a significant portion of the course grade is based on student team projects. PRQ: COMS 100.
Jennifer Likeum (3 credit hours)
This one credit hour course on political communication is intended to familiarize students with what careers communication students can have in government, non-for-profit issue advocacy, and political parties. Students will meet with communication professionals in the field and explore Springfield, spending one day at the Lincoln Museum and Library. Students successfully completing the course will gain a better concept of the variety of career paths they can take in government and politics with their communication background. Students should contact CLA&S External Programming for permit and registration information, (815) 753-5200.
Catalog Description: Directed study and research. Each topic may be repeated to a maximum of 6 semester hours.
Ferald Bryan (1 credit hours)
This course provides an analysis of contemporary macroeconomic and microeconomic issues. Students will explore and analyze topics in modern economics and topics of current importance to the consumers, resource owners, business, and government. Topics of discussions will be current and subject to change with regard to the economy and policies as we proceed through the semester.
Catalog Description: Topics of current importance to consumers, resource owners, business, and government. May be repeated up to 9 hours as topics change and can be taken concurrently. PRQ: ECON 260 and ECON 261.
Sowjanya Dharmasanker (3 credit hours)
William Shakespeare is thought of as one of the greatest writers in all world literature. This is partly because of his deep understanding of the complexities of human nature. But it is also because of his extraordinary skill with language and the demands of his theatre. He is a great artist in both word and dramatic action. Though he is an artist for all times, he is also very much a man of his world. So it is necessary for us to study the theatre, the history, and the world view of his Elizabethan and Jacobean era. The course will focus on Shakespeare’s language, his plots, his characterization, as well as the political, ethical, and psychological issues his plays address.
Assessment will include one play per class, daily quizzes, a short paper, two exams, and a final exam.
Catalog Description: Representaive plays. Intended to prepare the general student to read and view the plays independently. Not available for credit in the major.
Mark Kipperman (3 credit hours)
Though maps have been used by civilizations for well over 5,000 years, practically all aspects of mapping today involve computers – from the collection of real-world data by GPS or satellites, to drafting and printing. Rather than study the history of maps and mapping, we will instead study the concept of maps as tools of modern communication and visualization. This course is also the starting point for NIU’s certificate of undergraduate study in Geographic Information Systems (in addition to applying toward the B.G.S.) and is required for several further courses in geography. Mandatory introductory face-to-face class meeting.
Catalog Description, GEOG 256: Introduction to maps as models of our earth, tools of visualization, and forms of graphic communication. Use of satellite and aerial imagery, land surveying, and geographic information systems in map production. Thematic maps and how they are used. Map design for informational and persuasive purposes. Two hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory.
Catalog Description, GEOG 556: For graduate students with little formal background in mapping. Maps as models, tools of visualization, and forms of graphic communication. Processes of map production, including imagery and surveying. Principles of map design.
Kory Allred (3 credit hours)
This course is intended to provide the student with a broader understanding of water and its importance to our lives and earth’s complex environment. We will consider issues facing water such as whether the supply of water will continue, how man-made developments have altered water availability, how pollution has eroded this natural resource, and where/how we can restore our water resources. Relevant video clips, online tutorials, and supplemental readings will be used throughout the course to provide examples of water-related issues affecting northern Illinois, other regions of the U.S., as well as various countries around the world.
Catalog Description: Evaluation of water as a resource; its availability, distribution, use, and quality. Operation of the hydrologic cycle and relationships between surface water and the soil, groundwater, and atmosphere. Human impacts on water resources and the management of water-related hazards, including flooding, drought, and the spread of disease. Lecture and field experience.
Sharon Ashley (3 credit hours)
Examination of fundamentals of atmospheric phenomena with an emphasis on understanding concepts and processes behind severe manifestations of weather and climate. Physical aspects of extratropical cyclones, winter weather phenomena, thunderstorm phenomena, tropical weather systems, and large-scale longer-term weather events are analyzed. Case studies are employed to investigate human, economic, and environmental consequences of extreme weather and climate events.
Catalog Description: Examination of fundamentals of atmospheric phenomena with an emphasis on understanding concepts and processes behind severe manifestations of weather and climate. Physical aspects of extratropical cyclones, winter weather phenomena, thunderstorm phenomena, tropical weather systems, and large-scale, longer-term weather events are analyzed. Case studies are employed to investigate human, economic, and environmental consequences of extreme weather and climate events.
Walker Ashley (3 credit hours)
This course is an introduction to geographic issues in various regions of the United States and Canada. You will be introduced to some major patterns and processes that dominate the major physical and cultural realms of this region. We will first go over some basic physical and social features common to the United States and Canada. We then will explore the historical evolution and unique physical, cultural, and environmental features of fourteen sub-regions, following your textbook. Rather than just describing each region, we will examine the various regions in an attempt to understand and explain regional differences. Ultimately, our exploration of these regions should help us all reach a deeper understanding of the diversity and complexity of life in the United States and Canada. A final project, map quizzes, and exams will all be utilized to increase your knowledge of this diverse and fascinating region.
Catalog Description: Regional analysis of the two countries. Cultural, economic, and political patterns. Geographic perspectives applied to current issues and problems.
Sharon Ashley (3 credit hours)
Have you ever asked yourself, “Where in the world am I?” GEOG 359 may help you answer that question with an introductory study into the principles of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In this online course, we develop skills in GIS, its components, and how it applies to our surrounding environment. This course is a primer for those who are interested in learning more about the dynamic and ever-changing world of GIS and its career applications.
Catalog Description, GEOG 359: Study of the fundamental principles of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Emphasis on the development of these systems, their components and their integration into mainstream geography. Two hours of lecture, two hours of laboratory. PRQ: GEOG 256 or GEOG 352 or consent of department.
Catalog Description, GEOG 557: For graduate students with little formal background in GIS or computer mapping. Principles, components, and uses of geographic information systems. PRQ: GEOG 552 or GEOG 556, or consent of department.
Phil Young (3 credit hours)
This course introduces students to geographic concepts surrounding climate change. The coverage of this broad subject will focus on different scales of climate change, i.e. local (urban heat island) to planetary (atmospheric teleconnections and global blocking patterns). In addition to climate change science, human dimensions of climate change will be examined covering the effects of humans on climate as well as mitigation strategies for adapting to the different scales of climate change ongoing and/or predicted. This course will be of value to a wide ranging audience as it will not only cover answers as to why our climate changes, but also further geographic questions of where, how, and when these changes will be manifested. Finally, mitigation and adaptation stragtegies will be discussed in order to synthesize our understanding of climate change and also provide students with knowledge applicable to urban and regional planning, public administration, and environmental planning.
Catalog Description: Overview of the science of climate change and an analysis of the implications of this change on societies throughout the world. Spatial dimensions of climate change will be examined from a holistic perspective, taking into account interactions between the natural and man-made environment, impacted societies and the development of economic and social policies. Social and political ramifications of climate change have become apparent as local commnities in different parts of the world struggle to adapt to new patterns of urban climate, excessive rainfall, prolonged droughts, and severe weather events.
Mace Bentley (3 credit hours)
Application of soil knowledge to land use and management of agricultural, wildland, and urban landscapes. Use of soil survey information in Geographic Information Systems. Emphasis on soil morphology and interpretation, wetlands, hydric soils, soil erosion and conservation, and human and livestock waste disposal.
Catalog Description, GEOG 403: Regional and local problems of soil utilization and management. Strategies for using soil data in land use plans and legislation. PRQ: GEOG 101 and GEOG 102, or consent of department.
Catalog Description, GEOG 503: Regional and local problems of soil utilization and management. Strategies for using soil data in land use plans and legislation.
Michael Konen (3 credit hours)
A Geographic Information System (GIS), composed of multiple map layers of a place, can facilitate problem-solving in a variety of social, environmental, and business settings. This course will apply GIS to examples from these different settings. Methods of integrating land, environmental, demographic, and business information will be demonstrated. In addition to applying to the B.G.S., this class also counts toward NIU’s certificate of undergraduate study in Geographic Information Systems.
Catalog Description, GEOG 459: Study of the conceptual framework and development of geographic information systems. Emphasis on the actual application of a GIS to spatial analysis. Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory. PRQ: GEOG 359 or consent of department.
Catalog Description, GEOG 559: Study of the conceptual framework and development of geographic information systems. Emphasis on the actual application of a GIS to spatial analysis. Two hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory. PRQ: GEOG 557 or consent of department.
Richard Greene (3 credit hours)
This course is about the lives and experience of men, women and children who lived in the British Isles from the Norman conquest in 1066 to the very different invasion of William of Orange in 1688. Throughout the semester we will explore the ideas of popular religion, of marriage and sexual relations, leisure and prostitution. In addition, we will examine the gender relationships that shaped and influenced politics, religion, the monarchy and the daily lives of Britons. The class will debate such topics as the reasons for the Protestant Reformation in Britain as well as the demise of the domestic beer industry and the closure of public baths. Through the readings, films and lectures, students will uncover what it meant for ordinary men, women and children to be part of an expanding empire and an increasingly powerful economic entity in Europe.
Catalog Description: Survey of British history from the Norman Conquest to the Glorious Revolution. Interaction between various nations in the British Isles, English state development and law, and the links between religion and popular culture.
Sandra Dawson (3 credit hours)
This class examines violence, inequality, and social justice as themes that have emerged in Latin American film and historiography between 1950 and the present. A period of increasing poverty, state violence, and political repression, the last sixty years of Latin American history have demonstrated the failures of modern nation building perhaps more acutely than any other time since the establishment of nation states in Mexico, Central and South America during the early nineteenth century. The course approaches film as cultural responses to these failures at key moments in modern Mexican, Argentine, and Brazilian history. Addressing how urbanization, race, gender, poverty, inequality, and violence have been treated by national and independent film traditions in Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil, this class introduces students to the most salient artistic and cinematic concerns of Latin American film over the last century. Methods of studying film and history will also be addressed in the context of national cinematic traditions. There are no prerequisites for this class.
Catalog Description: Exploration of major themes in Latin American history from conquest to the modern day through film. Topics, examined through feature-length films and selected readings, include physical and spiritual conquest of Latin America, rural life, women, the family, the military, politics, capitalist modernization, authoritarianism, and revolution.
Kristen Huffine (3 credit hours)
History 461 is an examination of the American Revolution. This course will focus on the origins and outcomes of the revolution, along with the social, political, and cultural developments that marked this era. Additionally, this course will examine the important roles that the legacy of the American Revolution played in shaping American life. As an upper division course, this class is designed to enhance students’ understanding of historical methodology in addition to providing students a background into the history of this era. Therefore, History 461 is based primarily on enhancing students’ abilities to read, analyze and discuss historical documents and monographs.
Catalog Description: The causes of the Revolution and its impact on the political, economic, cultural, intellectual, and social aspects of American life.
Sean Cadagin (3 credit hours)
The period between 1929 and 1961 witnessed a great transformation in American society and politics. National prohibition, the Great Depression, the New Deal, World War II, the rise of labor and the middle class, and the Cold War are iconic events that have been burned into our national memory. Today, we are still debating the meaning of the struggles of this period. This course will seek to address these events and more in an effort to define the most important currents in this era.
Catalog Description: The U.S. in the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. Topics include Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, the road to Pearl Harbor, total war, social and political change in mid-century America, the Truman Doctrine and Stalinism, the Korean War, the Fifties, civil rights, the Eisenhower presidency, and the American response to revolutions in East Asia.
Steven Barleen (3 credit hours)
Catalog Description: Work as an intern in an off-campus agency in activities related to one of the majors in the college. Reading and paper preparation under the supervision of a faculty member in the college. May be repeated once. S/U grading. PRQ: Consent of major department and college; junior or senior standing.
Judy Santacaterina (3 credit hours)
It has been almost 70 years since the liberation of the Nazi death camps by Allied forces ended WWII and the European Holocaust. For many people, the historical fact of the annihilation of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators is too terrible a reality to bear. Faced with the most horrifying example of human brutality in recorded history---and the indisputable implications of that example---many people ignore the Holocaust, pass over it in silence, or deny it altogether.
This course will examine how the Holocaust has influenced, informed, and been revealed through the literary imagination. Students will read various types of literature---including poetry, short stories, novels, memoirs, and non-fictional essays---by European and American writers in order to understand the enormity of the Holocaust in human history and its impact on human consciousness. Writers will include Jean Amery, Primo Levi, Paul Celan, Elie Weisel, Jerzy Kosinski, Tadeusz Borowski, Cynthia Ozick, Ida Fink, Nellie Sachs, and Arnost Lustig, among others.
There will also be a one-day field trip to the Illinois Holocaust Museum in Skokie.
Catalog Description: Varied honors topics in the Liberal Arts and Sciences that are interdisciplinary in nature or can be fruitfully approached from multiple disciplinary perspectives. May be repeated to a maximum of 6 semester hours as the topic varies.
Steven Franklin (3 credit hours)
This course is designed to be a survey of issues and theories in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) studies. We will be exploring interdisciplinary perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity with attention to race, ethnicity, and class. Students will practice applying theories and concepts to the analysis of scholarship and to the analysis of current events and culture. Course goals: To develop understanding of fundamental issues, concepts, and theories in LGBT studies; To develop understanding of how gender identity and sexual orientation function inhuman societies; To cultivate skills of applying theories and information developed in LGBT studies to the analysis of social and cultural practices; To practice critical thinking and writing skills.
Catalog Description: Survey of issues and theories in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender studies. Interdisciplinary study of sexual orientation and gender identity, with attention to race, ethnicity, and class.
Meredith Frederich (3 credit hours)
The disintegration of the credit markets in the 21st century and the resulting macro and micro economic downfall are strong evidence that sustainable business success depends on more than the technical and professional skills of employees; rather, it is also contingent upon individual business conduct and the nature of business interactions among human beings. The goal of this course is to understand the place of individual businesses within the larger multifaceted global, social, economic and financial environments, to develop the ability to formulate, assess and defend ethical arguments to justify profitable managerial and organizational practices, and to understand how different ethical decision-making mechanisms can enable and sustain both business profitability and social well-being.
Catalog Description: Investigation of moral and ethical issues that arise in the context of business practices, addressing questions such as: To what extent should considerations other than profits determine business decisions? Who should be held responsible when corporations act immorally or break the law? What rights and obligations do employees and employers have with respect to one another? What obligations, if any, do businesses have to their consumers or to the general public?
Nicoleta Apostol (3 credit hours)
Students and faculty will travel to the nation’s capital for an intensive five-day, four-night, hands-on seminar in government and politics. We will tour and meet officials at the White House, Congress, and Supreme Court. The seminar will take place during spring break: March 10-14, 2012. Students should contact CLA&S External Programming for permit and registration information at (815) 753-5200 or follow this link www.niu.edu/clasep/courses/pols497/index.shtml.
Catalog Description: Small groups of participants study topics under the guidance of an instructor. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 semester hours, but only 6 semester hours may be applied towards the major. Students may enroll up to three credit hours per semester. Recommended: At least sophomore standing.
Artemus Ward (1 credit hours)
Personality is defined as consistent behavior patterns and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual. This course will focus on the study of individuals and examine the major contributions made to the field of personality by renowned psychologists. Class sessions will enhance student learning on the psychoanalytic approach (Freudian Theory); New-Freudian theories; trait approach; biological approach; humanistic approach; behavioral/social learning approach and the cognitive approach. Lecture and films will be presented in class sessions followed by open group discussion and activities to identify and clarify critical issues and concepts presented in the text.
Catalog Description: Consideration of basic factors in personality and the role of personality in the study of behavior. Discussion and critical examination of contemporary studies in personality, with emphasis on experimental evidence. PRQ: At least sophomore standing and PSYC 102, or consent of department.
Christopher Parker (3 credit hours)
Alport (1985) writes that social psychology is a scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people. This course will examine how people are influenced by immediate surroundings, cultural norms, and family background through lecture, films, activities and small group discussions. Major learning components will offer students enhanced knowledge on critical societal problems such as attitudes, attitude change, conformity, group processes, interpersonal attraction, discrimination/stereotype, pro-social behavior, and health.
Catalog Description: Behavior in the context of social interaction, with emphasis on experimental findings. Includes such topics as interpersonal judgment and perception, social attraction, aggression, prejudice and social influence, including attitude formation and persuasion, conformity, and social modeling. PRQ: At least sophomore standing and PSYC 102, or consent of department.
Joanne Messina (3 credit hours)
This course looks at the contemporary American family from a sociological perspective. The selection of a partner or spouse, the decision to have children (including when and how many), as well as internal family dynamics, are all very intimate and personal decisions made by individuals throughout their lives. However, each of these actions are directly impacted and influenced by the society in which one lives, often in hidden and unexplored ways. We will examine the family in cultural, historical, and political contexts to further your understanding of current conceptions of the changing and, as believed by some, threatened family structure in the U.S.
This course will use film, current events, research, and class discussion to explore the American family. We will examine the important influences of social class, gender, sexual orientation, and race/ethnicity on families, and how these social factors impact individuals, influence social policy, and create our overall societal conception of the family. Students will gain an understanding of the historical roots of contemporary American family ideologies and practices, as well as evaluate changes in family life in light of larger societal shifts, with a particular focus on the past 60 years. Students will also learn how family adaptive behaviors, in turn, come to shape the larger society.
Assessment requirements for the course will include the reading of assigned text selections, an examination of the family in popular media, film analysis, and generation of a research paper on a topic of choice related to family issues.
Catalog Description: Introduction to family sociological and historical research, focusing on the diversity and adaptability of families in changing contemporary American society. Emphasis on how large social trends and forces such as economic transitions, governmental policies, and societal values and beliefs affect families as units and family members as individuals. Attention given to understanding the dynamic social construction of gender within and outside of families. PRQ: SOCI 170 or SOCI 250 or SOCI 260 or SOCI 270, or consent of department.
Mary Landeros (3 credit hours)
Community courts are neighborhood-focused courts that attempt to harness the power of the justice system to address local problems. They can take many forms, but all focus on creative partnerships and problem solving. Restorative justice is a framework for juvenile justice reform that seeks to engage victims, offenders and their families, other citizens and community groups both as clients of the juvenile justice services and as a resource in an effective response to youth crime. Students will participate in a field school, which compares strategies used in the 15th and 16th Judicial Circuits of Illinois to strategies used in metropolitan areas outside of Illinois for addressing crime and incarceration. Students should contact CLA&S External Programming for permit and registration information or follow this link www.niu.edu/clasep/courses/soci395/index.shtml.
Catalog Description: Selcted topics in the analysis of contemporary social phenomena. Topics vary each semester. May be taken a total of three times as topic changes. Enrollment in multiple sections of SOCI 395 in a semester is permitted. PRQ: SOCI 170 or consent of department.
Jack King (3 credit hours)
Throughout the history of the United States, women have contributed a great deal to the country’s cultural landscape. This course will examine the important contributions that women have made to American culture through a consideration of women’s fine arts and crafts, fashions, literature, and music. Although this course will incorporate an historical overview of women’s culture, we will focus primarily on women’s contributions over the past two decades. Furthermore, this course will emphasize the ways in which factors like gender, class, sexuality, ethnicity and race influence women’s culture.
Catalog Description: May be repeated to a maximum of 6 semester hours as topic changes. PRQ: Junior or senior standing or consent of director.
Rebekah Kohli (3 credit hours)
Through online lectures and discussion, as well as readings, writing assignments, and other activities, students will gain an understanding of and appreciation for the many ways Renaissance women both conformed to and subverted the cultural expectations around them. We will consider music, art, religion, education, law, literature, government, and medicine, as well as place English Renaissance women within a broader international context. We will also explore the ways that the legacy of the English Renaissance has shaped today’s cultural expectations. Finally, we will interrogate the modern-day interest in the renaissance from Showtime’s “The Tudors” to Broadway shows like The Pirate Queen and blockbuster movies like Elizabeth: The Golden Age. Why does this historical period still fascinate us so?
Catalog Description: May be repeated to a maximum of 6 semester hours as topic changes. PRQ: Junior or senior standing or consent of director.
Lise Schlosser (3 credit hours)