The Journal of Burma Studies in Text Reference Style Sheet

These guidelines follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed.

1. Citation-in-Text

The Author-Date system comprises two complimentary parts: citation-in-text and the reference list. With citation-in-text, references are referred to in running text by the author surname and date of publication separated by a space.

The voices of history should be heard, the subaltern version of history examined and used to reveal a new version of the narrative of Thai history (Reynolds 1994).

Reference to a specific page may be included, separated from the date by a colon.

Over this same period, annual agricultural yields increased by only 5% (Hearst 1980:322).

Use a comma to separate two works from the same author but with different dates.

Unfortunately for the government, it was virtually impossible to penetrate the “legal debris” left by the Marcoses and obtain the clear title needed to sell the family's villas (Garcia 1990, 1991).

When a sentence closes with a quotation, place the citation after the closing “quotation marks” and before the final punctuation mark.

As stated in the report, “the pattern of industrial development in Thailand is clearly moving east” (Yongyuth 1991:27).

In a block quotation, place the citation after the final punctuation mark.

According to Nick Joaquin, Aguinaldo was more than just the first president of the Philippine republic; he was, rather, the life-blood of the nation.

For if we had a revolution, it was Aguinaldo's revolution; if we had a republic, it was Aguinaldo's republic; if we had a flag, it was Aguinaldo's flag; if we had an anthem, it was Aguinaldo's anthem; and if we had a freedom day, it was Aguinaldo's freedom day. Wherever we turn a patriot's eye, we find him. (Joaquin 1976:18)

Thus we find the almost tangible specter of Aguinaldo in much of Joaquin's dramatic writing. …

When details which would otherwise appear in the citation are included in the sentence, omit them from the citation.

Hearst (1980:322) notes that over this same period, annual agricultural yields increased by only 5%


In his seminal work Agricultural Practices in Cambodia, published in 1980, Hearst noted that over this same period annual agricultural yields increased by only 5% (322).

When a source is referred to several times in close sequence without any other intervening reference, the first such instance is identified by a full author-date citation while the following references indicate only the page references, e.g. First reference (Higgins 1983:27), following reference (32).

Other Examples…

Single author

(Carino 1989:12)
Carino (1989:12) states . . .

(Rocamora and O'Connor 1977)
Rocamora and O'Connor (1977) discuss …

Four or more authors

(Smith et al 1996)
Smith (1996) illustrates …

Same author, same year
Multiple publications in the same year by a single author are arranged alphabetically by title and each given a letter designation that is included in the citation.

(Key 1996a:212-13)
(Key 1996a:212-13) stated …
(Key 1996b)
Key (1996b) stresses …

Multiple sources
The order of the sources need not be chronological or alphabetical. Use a semi-colon to separate sources from different authors.

(Jackson 1983:201; Haldane 1946:131; Sitwell 1996:iv)

Anonymous source
Give the name of the newspaper, sponsoring organization or short form of the title.

(New York Times 1995:1)
(USAID 1991:23)
(“Government to Sell” 1994)

Interview, Letter
Give the date and location for an interview, the date for a letter.

(Lim, interview with the author, Manila, January 23, 1987)
(Lim interview with the author, January 23, 1987) has commented that …
(Anderson, letter to John Smith, April 4, 1989)
Anderson (letter to John Smith, April 4, 1989) would agree …

Citation-in-text is designed to simplify presentation for the reader. Therefore, we ask that you use footnotes only for adding brief comments that would distract from the text, but not to offer additional references. Any reference appearing in a footnote MUST be in Author-Date form.

2. Reference List
The reference list is the second part of the Author-Date system which complements citation-in-text. In the reference list, the author and data of publication are listed in alphabetical and chronological order. Use italics for titles of published works.

One author, book
Use the author’s name, with initials or in full, as it appears on the title page of the book. Otherwise use the author’s full first name. Include the place of publication and publisher. Note that titles use sentence-style capitalization.

Manderson, Lenore. 1980. Women, politics and change: The Kaum Ibu UMNO Malaysia, 1945-1972. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Same author, second entry, journal article
Use a three-em dash in place of the author’s name for a second entry. Note that journal articles use sentence-style capitalization and no quotation marks. Journal titles are in italics.

———. 1992. Public sex performances in Patpong and explorations of the edges of imagination. The Journal of Sex Research 29 (4): 451-75.

Same author, same year
Multiple publications in the same year by a single author are arranged alphabetically by title and each given a letter designation which is included in the reference listing.

Kong, L. 1995a. Popular music in geographical analysis. Progress in Human Geography 19:183-98.

———. 1995b. Music and cultural politics: Ideology and resistance in Singapore. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers 20:447-59.

Article in an edited book, 3 authors, 2 editors
Perkins, Vince, George Anderson, and Walter Smith. 1992. Introduction. In Urbanization and the environment in Southeast Asia, eds. Vince Perkins and George Anderson. xi-xlvi. New York: Asia Press.

More than 3 authors
Farrel, T., Mary Landers, Gertrude Allison, and John Montel. 1984. Women in the cities of Asia. Denver, CO: Western Mountain Press.

Edited Book
Carino Ledivina V., ed. 1991. Public administration in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: UNESCO.

Translated Book
Information on the original work is optional.

Pramoedya, Ananta. 1982. This earth of mankind: A novel. trans. Max Lane. Ringwood, Australia; New York: Penguin Books. Originally published as Bumi Manusia: Sebuah Roman (Jakarta: Hasta Mitra, 1980).

Vernacular language work
Transliterations and/or translations of non-English-language titles may be inserted in brackets immediately after the original title. Use a standard (non-italic) font for the new title; do not use quotes. Separate a transliterated title from a translated title by a semi-colon.

Pracoyo Wiryoutomo et al. 1995. Dendam seniman Pram dalam penghargaan [Artist Pram's resentment amidst praise], Forum Keadilan [Legal Forum], August 28, 12-13.

Multivolume work

Wright, Sewall. 1968-78. Evolution and the genetics of populations. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

A single volume of a multivolume work

Wright, Sewall. 1978. Variability within and among natural populations. Vol. 4 of Evolution and the genetics of populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Part of a series
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. 1989. The empire writes back: Theory and practice in post-colonial literatures. New Accents (series title), gen. ed. Terence Hawkes. New York: Routledge.

No date
Gordon, Shirle. n.d. Malay marriage-divorce in the 11 states of Malaysia and Singapore. Intisari II (2): 23-32.

Newspaper article
Ranee, Alina. 1996. Cancer risk worry in fertility treatments. New Straits Times, May 22, B9.

Newspaper article, no stated author
The Indonesian Times. 1996. Supreme Court reinstates ban on Tempo Weekly. June 14, 7.

Rodriguez, Lulu A. 1993. What People Get from the News: How Filipinos Understand Land Reform. PhD diss., Mass Communications, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Conference paper
Ho, S. G. 1990. A study of Singapore pre-university students' views on Confucian filial piety. Paper presented at the International Conference on Confucianism and Modernization, Hainan University, Haikou, People's Republic of China, January 23-25.

Unpublished manuscript
Jones, Lydia H. n.d. Economic trends in Singapore leading up to the transfer of control in Hong Kong. Unpublished manuscript.

Unpublished public document
Put the title in “quotation marks” and note the location of the authoring agency.

International Labor Office 1962 “Report to the Government of Thailand on Proposed Social Security Legislation.” Geneva.