The Journal of Burma Studies
Footnote and Bibliography Style Sheet

The humanities style of references includes both full bibliographic facts in a footnote and a bibliography of all cited references. Below are examples of material cited in the Note style following The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition.

A book with one author.

Footnote: 1. John F. Cady, A History of Modern Burma (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1958) 65.
Bibliography: Cady, John F. A History of Modern Burma. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1958.
Or
Footnote: 5. David I. Steinberg, Turmoil in Burma: Contested Legitimacies in Myanmar (New York: Eastbridge, 2006).
Bibliography: Steinberg, David I. Turmoil in Burma: Contested Legitimacies in Myanmar. New York: Eastbridge, 2006.
Or
Footnote: 7. Sylvia Fraser-Lu, Splendour in Wood: The Buddhist Monasteries of Burma (Trumbull, CT: Weatherhill, 2001) 67.
Bibliography: Fraser-Lu, Sylvia. Splendour in Wood: The Buddhist Monasteries of Burma Trumbull, CT: Weatherhill, 2001.


A book with two authors.

Footnote: 21. John Okell and Anna J. Allott, Burmese/Myanmar Dictionary of Grammatical Forms (Richmond: Curzon, 2001) 221.
Bibliography: Okell, John, and Anna J. Allott. Burmese/Myanmar Dictionary of Grammatical Forms. Richmond: Curzon, 2001.


A book with multiple authors/editors.

Footnote: 6. Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert H. Taylor, and Tin Maung Maung Than, eds., Myanmar: Beyond Politics to Societal Imperatives (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005) 43-6.
Bibliography: Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert H. Taylor, and Tin Maung Maung Than, eds. Myanmar: Beyond Politics to Societal Imperatives. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005.


A book that is edited, with no author.

Footnote: 13. Monique Skidmore ed., Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005) 2-7.
Bibliography: Skidmore, Monique ed. Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.
Or
Footnote: 34. Juliane Schober, ed., Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997).
Bibiography: Schober, Juliane, ed. Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.


A book with an editor in addition to an author.

Footnote: 12. Edward Michael Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma: A Study of Monastic Sectarianism and Leadership, ed. John P. Ferguson (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975) 234-6.
Bibliography: Mendelson, Edward Michael. Sangha and State in Burma: A Study of Monastic Sectarianism and Leadership. Edited by John P. Ferguson. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.


A chapter or part of a book.

Footnote: 61. Leonard Evans Bagshawe, "The 'Moral and Intellectual Improvement of the People': Western Education in Burma to 1880," in Etudes Birmanes: En Hommage À Denise Bernot, ed. Pierre Pichard and François Robinne, (Paris: Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1998) 67.
Bibliography: Bagshawe, Leonard Evans. "The 'Moral and Intellectual Improvement of the People': Western Education in Burma to 1880." In Etudes Birmanes: En Hommage À Denise Bernot, edited by Pierre Pichard and François Robinne. Paris: Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1998.
Or
Footnote: 7. Patrick Pranke, "On Becoming a Buddhist Wizard," in Buddhism in Practice, ed. Donald Lopez (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995) 354.
Bibliography: Pranke, Patrick. "On Becoming a Buddhist Wizard." In Buddhism in Practice, edited by Donald Lopez, 343-58. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.


A Journal article.

Footnote: 10. Gustaaf Houtman, "How a Foreigner Invented 'Buddhendom' in Burmese: From Tha-Tha-Na to Bok-Da' Ba-Tha," Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 21, no. 2 (1990) 109-10.
Bibliography: Houtman, Gustaaf. "How a Foreigner Invented 'Buddhendom' in Burmese: From Tha-Tha-Na to Bok-Da' Ba-Tha." Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 21, no. 2 (1990): 113-28.
Or
Footnote: 15. Kaung, "A Survey of the History of Education in Burma before the British Conquest and After," Journal of the Burma Research Society 46, no. 2 (1963) 66.
Bibliography: U Kaung. "A Survey of the History of Education in Burma before the British Conquest and After." Journal of the Burma Research Society 46, no. 2 (1963): 1-125.


A Newspaper article.

Footnote: 78. Khin Maung Nyut, "The Centenary of the YMBA," The New Light of Myanmar, May 5, 2006.
Bibliography: Khin Maung Nyut. "The Centenary of the YMBA." The New Light of Myanmar, May 5, 2006.
Or
Footnote: 22. May Oung, "A Remarkable Story: A Curious Talaing Belief," The Times of Burma, July 11, 1900.
Bibliography: U May Oung. "A Remarkable Story: A Curious Talaing Belief." The Times of Burma, July 11, 1900, 7.


Dissertation.

Footnote: 13. Michael W. Charney, "Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan (Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)" (PhD diss, University of Michigan, 1999) 22-29, 55.
Bibliography: Charney, Michael W. "Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan (Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries). Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1999.


Master’s Thesis.

Footnote: 4. Leonard Evans Bagshawe, "A Literature of School Books: A Study of the Burmese Books Approved for Use in Schools by the Education Department in 1885, and of Their Place in the Developing Educational System in British Burma" (masters thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976).
Bibliography: Bagshawe, Leonard Evans. "A Literature of School Books: A Study of the Burmese Books Approved for Use in Schools by the Education Department in 1885, and of Their Place in the Developing Educational System in British Burma." Masters thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976.


Book Review.

Footnote: 2. Sarah M. Bekker, review of Twilight over Burma: My Life as a Shan Princess, by Inge Sargent, foreword by Bertil Lintner, Journal of Asian Studies 55, no. 1 (Feb 1996): 229.
Bibliography: Bekker, Sarah M. Review of Twilight over Burma: My Life as a Shan Princess, by Inge Sargent, foreword by Bertil Lintner. Journal of Asian Studies 55, no. 1 (Feb 1996): 229-30.


Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference.

Footnote: 9. Erik Braun, "The Rise of the Laity and the Origins of Insight Meditation," (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Asian Studies, Atlanta, April 5, 2008).
Bibliography: Braun, Erik. "The Rise of the Laity and the Origins of Insight Meditation." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Asian Studies, Atlanta, April 5, 2008.

Footnote Format

Please note that when a reference is used in a second footnote it appears in shortened form as follows. A reference in an immediately subsequent footnote is replaced by ibid (footnote 4 below thus refers to pages 33 to 35 of Bagshawes thesis.)

  1. Leonard Evans Bagshawe, "A Literature of School Books: A Study of the Burmese Books Approved for Use in Schools by the Education Department in 1885, and of Their Place in the Developing Educational System in British Burma" (masters thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976) 127-9, 232.
  2. Kaung, "A Survey of the History of Education in Burma before the British Conquest and After," Journal of the Burma Research Society 46, no. 2 (1963) 66.
  3. Bagshawe, “A Literature of School Books” 32.
  4. Ibid. 33-5.
  5. Kaung, “Survey of Education” 73.

Footnote Format

A complete bibliography for this set of references would appear as below. Please note that the second and subsequent titles by one author use a line in place of the author’s name. Note also the alphabetical order using the first letter of the first syllable of Burmese names, adding titles such as “U” or “Daw” where appropriate.


Bibliography:

Bagshawe, Leonard Evans. "A Literature of School Books: A Study of the Burmese Books Approved for Use in Schools by the Education Department in 1885, and of Their Place in the Developing Educational System in British Burma." masters thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, 1976.

——— "The 'Moral and Intellectual Improvement of the People': Western Education in Burma to 1880." In Etudes Birmanes: En Hommage À Denise Bernot, edited by Pierre Pichard and François Robinne. Paris: Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient, 1998.

Bekker, Sarah M. Review of Twilight over Burma: My Life as a Shan Princess, by Inge Sargent, foreword by Bertil Lintner. Journal of Asia Studies 55, no. 1 (Feb 1996): 229-30.

Braun, Erik. "The Rise of the Laity and the Origins of Insight Meditation." presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Asian Studies, Atlanta, April 5, 2008.

Charney, Michael W. "Where Jambudipa and Islamdom Converged: Religious Change and the Emergence of Buddhist Communalism in Early Modern Arakan (Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)." PhD diss, University of Michigan, 1999.

Fraser-Lu, Sylvia. Splendour in Wood: The Buddhist Monasteries of Burma Trumbull, CT: Weatherhill, 2001.

Houtman, Gustaaf. "How a Foreigner Invented 'Buddhendom' in Burmese: From Tha-Tha-Na to Bok-Da' Ba-Tha." Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 21, no. 2 (1990): 113-28.

U Kaung. "A Survey of the History of Education in Burma before the British Conquest and After." Journal of the Burma Research Society 46, no. 2 (1963): 1-125.

Khin Maung Nyut. "The Centenary of the YMBA." The New Light of Myanmar, May 5 2006.

Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert H. Taylor, and Tin Maung Maung Than, eds. Myanmar: Beyond Politics to Societal Imperatives. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005.

U May Oung. "A Remarkable Story: A Curious Talaing Belief." The Times of Burma, July 11 1900, 7.

Mendelson, Edward Michael. Sangha and State in Burma: A Study of Monastic Sectarianism and Leadership. Edited by John P. Ferguson. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Okell, John, and Anna J. Allott. Burmese/Myanmar Dictionary of Grammatical Forms. Richmond: Curzon, 2001.

Pranke, Patrick. "On Becoming a Buddhist Wizard." In Buddhism in Practice, edited by Donald Lopez, 343-58. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Schober, Juliane, ed. Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.

Skidmore, Monique ed. Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.

Steinberg, David I. Turmoil in Burma: Contested Legitimacies in Myanmar. New York: Eastbridge, 2006.